Table of Contents

18 August 1982, Volume 20 Issue 3
    Research Articles
  • Lu An-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 257-274.
    The present paper aims to discuss the geog raphical distribution of the Juglandaceae on the basis of unity of the phylogeny and the process of dispersal in the plants. The paper is divided into the following three parts: 1. The systematic positions and the distribution patterns of nine living genera in the family Juglandaceae (namely, Engelhardia, Oreomunnea, Alfaroa, Pterocarya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Carya, Annamocarya and Platycarya) are briefly discussed. The evolutional relationships between the different genera of the Juglandaceae are elucidated. The fossil distribution and the geological date of the plant groups are reviewed. Through the analysis for the geographical distribution of the Juglandaceous genera, the distribution patterns may be divided as follows: A. The tropical distribution pattern a. The genera of tropical Asia distribution: Engelhardia, Annamocarya. b. The genera of tropical Central America distribution: Oreomunnea, Alfaroa. B. The temperate distribution pattern c. The genus of disjunct distribution between Western Asia and Eastern Asia: Pterocarya. d. The genus of disjunct distribution between Eurasia and America: Juglans. e. The genus of disjunct distribution between Eastern Asia and North America: Carya. f. The genera whose distribution is confined to Eastern Asia: Cyclocarya, Platycarya. 2. The distribution of species According to Takhtajan’s view point of phytochoria, the number of species in every region are counted. It has shown clearily that the Eastern Asian Region and the Cotinental South-east Asian Region are most abundant in number of genera and species. Of the 71 living species, 53 are regional endemic elements, namely 74.6% of the total species. The author is of the opinion that most endemic species in Eurasia are of old endemic nature and in America of new endimic nature. There are now 7 genera and 28 species in China, whose south-western and central parts are most abundant in species, with Province Yunnan being richest in genera and species. 3. Discussions of the distribution patterns of the Juglandaceae A. The centre of floristic region B. The centre of floristic regions is determined by the following two principles: a. A large number of species concentrate in a district, namely the centre of the majority; b. Species of a district can reflect the main stages of the systematic evolution of the Juglandaceae, namely the centre of diversity. It has shown clearly that the southern part of Eastern Asian region and the northern part of Continental South-east Asian Region (i.c. Southern China and Northern Indo-China) are the main distribution centre of the Juglandaceae, while the southern part of Sonora Region and Caribbean Region (i.c. South-western U.S.A., Mexico and Central America) are the secondary distribution centre. As far as fossil records goes, it has shown that in Tertiary period the Juglandaceae were widely distributed in northern Eurasia and North America, growing not only in Europe and the Caucasus but also as far as in Greenland and Alaska. It may be considered that the Juglandaceae might be originated from Laurasia. According to the analysis of distribution pattern for living primitive genus, for example, Engelhardia, South-western China and Northern Indo-China may be the birthplace of the most primitive Juglandaceous plants. It also can be seen that the primitive genera and the primitive sections of every genus in the Juglandaceae have mostly distributed in the tropics or subtropics. At the same time, according to the analysis of morphological characters, such as naked buds in the primitive taxa of this family, it is considered that this character has relationship with the living conditions of their ancestors. All the evidence seems to show that the Juglandaceae are of forest origin in the tropical mountains having seasonal drying period. B. The time of the origin The geological times of fossil records are analyzed. It is concluded that the origin of the Juglandaceae dates back at least as early as the Cretaceous period. C. The routes of despersal After the emergence of the Juglandaceous plant on earth, it had first developed and dispersed in Southern China and Indo-China. Under conditions of the stable temperature and humidity in North Hemisphere during the period of its origin and development, the Juglandaceous plants had rapidly developed and distributed in Eurasia and dispersed to North America by two routes: Europe-Greenland-North America route and Asia-Bering Land-bridge-North America route. From Central America it later reached South America. D. The formaation of the modern distribution pattern and reasons for this formation. According to the fossil records, the formation of two disjunct areas was not due to the origin of synchronous development, nor to the parallel evolution in the two continents of Eurasia and America, nor can it be interpreted as due to result of transmissive function. The modern distribution pattern has developed as a result of the tectonic movement and of the climatic change after the Tertiary period. Because of the continental drift, the Eurasian Continent was separated from the North American Continent, it had formed a disjunction between Eurasia and North America. Especially, under the glaciation during the Late Tertiary and Quaternary Periods, the continents in Eurasia and North America were covered by ice sheet with the exception of “plant refuges”, most plants in the area were destroyed, but the southern part of Eastern Asia remained practically intact and most of the plants including the Juglandaceae were preserved from destruction by ice and thence became a main centre of survival in the North Hemisphere, likewise, there is another centre of survival in the same latitude in North America and Central America. E. Finally, the probable evolutionary relationships of the genera of the Juglanda-ceae is presented by the dendrogram in the text.
  • Yao Bi-Jun, Hu Yu-Shi
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 275-294.
    The epidermis and internal structure of 103 species and 8 varieties of conifer leaves belonging to 37 genera of 7 families have been comparatively investigated. The anatomical characters of leaves of all the genera (or sections) studied are described systematically and a key to the genera (or sections) is also presented. It is shown that in order to identify at the genus level, the leaf types of LaubenFels’ may be used as the primary characterization. And it can also be seen that the following characters which are relatively constant at the genus level provide an important basis for identification: the epidermal structure, the presence or absence of hypodermis, the degree of differentiation of mesophyll, the occurrence of vascular bundle sheath or endodermis, the transfusion tissue type, the number and relative spatial position of vascular bundles, the number and distribution of resin canal and the presence of sclereid or sclerenchyma. The genera of Cupressaceae (except for Juniperus and Sabina) are of scale leaves (Leaf type-III) with little differences in structural characters. It’s difficult to distinguish them from each other. In addition, some problems concerning the significance of the resin canal, the endodermis with Casparian-strip, the sclerenchyma and the vascular bundle in identificationare here also discussed.
  • Yü Te-Tsun, Lu Ling-Ti
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 295-310.
  • Fu Hiang-Chian
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 311-315.
  • Wan Yu, Huang Se-Zei
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 316-318.
  • Hsia Kuang-Cheng, Liu Xue-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 319-320.
  • Yang Chang-You
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 321-322.
  • Zhu Ge-Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 323-328.
    Tile distinguishing characters between Lithospermum and Arnebia are tabulated and these two genera are considered different between each other. Five species of the former and six species of the latter are recognized in China, and two keys to species are given for the two genera respectively. The pattern of the disjunct distribution ofLithospermum offici nale is discussed, and a map of its distribution range is given.
  • Boufford Daivd E., Spongberg Stephen A.
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 329-330.
    Rehder and Wilson (1913) described Liquidambar formosana Hance var. monticola based on material collected by Wilson in western Hubei and Sichuan Provinces. An examination of the type, Wilson 795 (A), reveals that there are three sheets with this number, all with “Type” in Wilson’handwriting on the label. These syntypes do not agree completely with the original description. They also fall within the range of variation of L. formosana var. formosana based on a comparison of specimens from throughout the range of the species. Consequently, we consider L. formosana Hance var.monticola Rehder & Wilson to be a synonym of L. formosana Hance var. formosana.
  • Li Cheng-Sen
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 331-342.
    A new psilophytic plant, Hsüa robusta, is found in the Xujiachong Formation (Emsian) of the Lower Devonian from the Qüjing (= Kütsing) district of Yunnan, China. This plant is tentatively referred to the Cooksoniaceae of Rhyniales. Hsüa gen. nov. Type species: Hsüa robusta (Li et Cai) C. S. Li. Diagnosis: Plants erect and then creeping. Main axes dividing pseudomonopodially and bearing dichotomous lateral branches which somewhat differentiate into vegeta, tire and fertile ones, with dichotomous root-like and rhizophore-like appendages. Sporangia terminal, round to reniform or wide reniform, dehiscing along distal margin into two equal halves. Spores homosporous, trilete. Stomata anomocytic. Protostele centrarch. Hsüia robusta (Li et Cai) C. S. Li, comb. nov. Cooksonia zhanyiensis Li et Cai, Acta Geologica Sinica, 52 (1) 1978, p. 10, pl. II, fig. 6.——Taeniocrada robusta Li et Cai,ib. p. 10, pl. II, fig. 7—14. Diagnosis: Characters same as in generic diagnosis. Main axes 6—10 mm wide and at least 24 cm long, with vascular strands 1.2—2.4 mm acr oss. Fertile branches 3—4 times equally or unequally dichotomous, 10—1.5 mm in width and up to 11 cm in length, possessing a vascular bundle of 0.5 mm in its greatest diameter. Branches circinately coiled in apical regions. Axial tubercles, root-like and rhizophore— like appendages arising from the main axes usually anterior to the lateral branches. Axial tubercle round with a diameter of 2.2—2.4 mm, having a vascular bundle about l mm across. Rootlike branches 3 times bifurcate, 1—0.3 mm wide and up to 1.5 cm long, with a vascular bundle about 0.1 mm across. Rhizophore-like appendages forked, 3—1.7 mm in width, possessing a vascular bundle of 0.7 mm in its greatest diameter. Root-like protuberances sometimes arising from rhilzophore-like branches. Epidermal cells of axes generally elongate, measuring 60—290μby 25—60 μ. Stomata mainly fusiform, 90—110 μ long and 50—60μ wide, consisting of a pair of guard cells enclosing a pore 6—15μ in length and 1—3μ in width. Cuticle of guard cells quite thick. Stomatal density about 5 per mm2. Sporangia 0.8—4.2 mm high, 1.0—8.2 mm across, usually having a dehiscent distal border which measures 50—100μ broad. Demarcation between sporangium and its stalk quite clear. Epidermal cells of basal part of sporangial walls elongate, about 100 μ long and 30μ wide, but those of distal part isodiametrally polygonal, about 50μ in diameter. Stomata, radially arranged scattering over sporangial walls, generally round about 50μ in diameter and 50 per sporangium. Spores round, 18—36μ (average 27μ) indiameter, and smooth. Tracheids of protoxylem about 10μ across; those of metaxylem about 30μ across, with scalariform thickening. This plant is similar to Renalia hueberi Gensel in general morphology, but differs from the latter in possessing root-like and rhizophore-like branches. The generic name is derived from Prof. Hsü Jen. This paper is a thesis for M. Sc.
  • Li Fa-Zeng, Ni Chen-Kai
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 343-346.
  • Ching Ren-Chang, Wang Zhong-Ren
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 347-350.
    Angiopteris sparsisora Ching, sp. nov. Species nova ab omnibus affinibus adhuc cognitis recedit rhizomate repente, dorsiventrali, habitu minore stipite tenui, levi, paleis brunneis lineari-lanceolatis margine irregulariter fimbriatis peltati-fixis, pinnulis basi cuneatis vel late cuneatis, distincte breviterque petiolulatis, soris longitudine variis, inter se separatis a margine magis remotis, paraphysibus rudimentalibus brevibus sparse praesentibus. Tota planta 1—1.2 m alata, rhizomate repente, carnoso, cylindrico, dorsiventrali, 5—6 cm diametro, radicoso, apice frondes 2—3 emittente, stipite 35—70 cm longo, 4—8 mm crasso, levi viridi, supra medium uni-geniculato (in frondibus pinnatis usque subbipinnatis), paleis brunneis lineari-lanceolatis basi rotunda peltati-fixis margine varie fimbriatis sparse vestito; lamina stipite longiore, bipinnata aut subb ipinnata raro superne simpliciter pinnata; pinnis 2—3(—7)-jugis, ,alternis vel suboppositis, oblongis, 45—55 cm longis, 18—23 cm latis, petiolo 4—16 cm longo suffultis, basi tumidis, pinnatis vel interdum simplicibus vel basi pinnatifidis; pinnulis plerumque 8—12-jugis, alternis vel suboppositis, patentibus, 8—18 cm longis, medio 1.5—3cm latis, lanceolatis, acuminatis, basin versus cuneatis vel late cuneatis, breviter petiolatis, pinnula terminali confomi paulo majore, petiolulata, hasi baud in alas decurrente, margine serrulatis; venis utrinquo distinctis, patentibus, simplicibus vel furcatis, prope marginem curvatis; pagina frondis textura in sicco virescente, chartacea, rachi, costis, costulis venisque subtus sparsim minuteque paleaceis. Soris breviter linearibus, 2—4 mm longis, 10—32-sporangiatis, inter se separatis, a margine 2—3 mm, remotis; paraphysibus sparsis brevibusrudimentalibus. Sporis globulosis, suparficie dense tubuculatis. Yunnan austro-orientalis: Xichou Xian, Fadou, S. K. Wu 4203 (typus, PE), 4198, 8, October, 1962; ibidem, Z. R. Wang 566-1, 566-2, 566-3, 566-4, 566-5, 15, January, 1978; ibidem V. M. Chu 8212, 15, January, 1978. in valley under evergreen broadleaved forests, alt. 1500—1550m. In the tropical rain forest in southeastern Yunnan, China, the members of Angiopteris Hoffm. and Archangiopteris Christ et Gies. are often growing side by side in great abundance. In January 1978 the second writer made a botantical trip there and collected in one locality ample herbarium material of an Angiopteris, which is identical with A. sparsisora Ching (ined.), based upon type specimens gathered by Mr. S. K. Wu from the same locality in 1962. To our great surprise, however, this distinct taxon reveals a number of important morphological characteristics intermediate between Angiopteris and Archangiopteris as diagnosed above. The present species resembles Archangiopteris in small build with creeping dorsiventral rhizome, unigeniculate, thin, smooth stipe in pinnate to bipinnatifid fronds, sparingly clad in linear-lanceolate peltately affixed scales with variously fimbriate margin, lamina 1—2 pinnate or subbipinnate, pinnules distinctly and shortly stipitate, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, sori of different length separated from each other by broad spaces, and rather far away (2—3 mm) from the margin, paraphyses few, rudimentary and short, but, on the other hand, it also similar to Angiopteris in usually bipinnate fronds, the petiole of pinnae with swollen base (blackish upon drying), short (2—4 mm long) linear sori consisting of 5—16 pairs of sporangia and globulax spores with densely tubucular sporoderms. All the above characteristics combined clearly indicate the species is in all likelihood a natural hybrid between Angiopteris and Archangiopteris, pending cytological investigation and the reason for presently placing it in Angiopteris rather than in Archangiopteris is because of the fact that in overall impression the newtaxon appears more like the former than the latter.
  • Wu Pang-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 351-353.
  • Han Fu-Shan, Chen Wei-Qun
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 354-370.
    Yunnan is extends across the subtropical and tropical zones, situated in the southern border area of southwestern China. This district is extremely rich in plants, and thus, it has been known as a “Kingdom of Plants”. However, up to the present our knowledge of the Charophyta in this region has been scanty. In order to get a thorough understanding of its Charophyta, we identified specimens collected from 13 countries or cities in this province. The result shows that is especially abundant in Charophyta. In this paper, however, only are reported new species, new varieties and new records of China on the Nitelleae. The former two are Nitella hokouensis, N. bicornuta, N. longicaudata, N. procera, N. brevidactyla, N. papillata, N. pseudohyalina, N. hyalina var. aberrans and Tolypella yunnanensis; while the third is Nitella globulifera Pal andN. japonica T. F. Alle
  • Chen Sing-Chi, Wu Ying-Xiang
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 371-379.
    Shui Xian, or the Chinese sacred lily, is one of the most famous ornamental flowers in China under cultivation for a long time. Although over a hundred years ago M. J. Roemer had discovered this charming flower and named Narcissus tazetta L. var. chinensis, its origin remains a puzzle up to the present day. Some authors considered it to be indigenous to China, while others held a contrary opinion, presuming that it is adventitions. However, it is generally recognized that neither argument has been confirmed. In Chinese literature, as we know, the first book that mentions the sacred lily with a brief description is “You Yang Za Zu” by Duan Cheng-shi (?—863). It notes: “Nax Zhi (=the sacred lily) came from Fu Lin Guo (now Italy), the root (bulb) as large as an egg, leaves 4—5 Chi (a unit of lenth, = 1/3 metre) long, garlic-like, scape from the centre of the leaves with flowers on its summit; flower 6-parted, redish-white with its centre yellowish-red, sterile; it is growing in winter and becoming dead in summer.” Though this is evidently not indicative of the plant we deal with here, but of another breed of sacred lily, it will be seen from this citation that there was no other plant known as Shui Xian than Nar Zhi in China during that time. The Chinese name Shui Xian was in fact not found in the ancient Chinese literature until the Song Dynasty (960—1279), a period in Chinese history leaving us no less than thirty pieces of well-known poems on this plant, such as “Shui Xian Hum” by Lin Ban (1023—1089), “Yin Shui Xian” by Huan Ting-jian (1045—1105) and “Fu Shui Xian Hun” by Zhu Xi (1130—1200). The Chinese sacred lily was very much admired in all these poems as a very rare and curious flower, then being cultivated mainly in Hunan and Hubei Provinces. But, unfortunately, no wild sacred lily has been reported from these provinces ever since. On the other hand, the Chinese sacred lily has recently been found growing wild in some places of Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces along the sea coast. But it usually grows as escaped plant in the places of human presence, for instance, around the temples or houses ——a fact we gathered from field observations in Zhou Shan Islands off the east coast of Zhejiang Province. It must be pointed out that almost all the flowers seen there were: nipped by the frost and, therefore, would be unable to bloom normally. Probably this is usually the case with it, for early spring, when it comes into blooms, is the coldest season of the year there. It is interesting to add that of all Chinese taxa of wind Amaryllidaceae, the Chinese sacred lily is the only member that flowers in such a cold season. The genus Narcissus is primarily distributed in the Mediterranean region and Central Europe with a few species extending to Iran, Afganistan and Pakistan. None but an entity occurs in the coast areas of Eastern Asia. This pattern of discontinuous distribution is apparently very rare among the angiosperms, which seems to be an unnatural mode of dispersal. Another important fact is its close resemblance both in habit and flower feature to some varieties of Mediterranean N. tazetta L., to which it belongs. And like most of them, the Chinese sacred lily, both wild and domesticated, is also sterile—a remarkable character usually found in long-cultivated plants. All the facts, as it appears to us, point to the same conclusion that the Chinese sacred lily is an exotic plant, possibly introduced from the Mediterranean region before the Song Dynasty. The early history indicated that the contacts between China and some European countries were rather frequent particularly during the Tang Dynasty. For example, from the 17th year of Tang Zhen Guan to the 10th year of Tang Kai Yuan (A. D. 643—723), Fu Lin Guo (now Italy) had five times dispatched envoys to China. Since Italy had once introduced a certain sacred lily into China probably as a present to the emperor, it is very likely that she would have exported to China in other occasions another kind of sacred lily, which was subsequently called Shui (water) Xian (celestial) by Chinese because of its beauty and water culture. After its being introduced, the Chinese sacred lily was perhaps first cultivated in the imperial court and then spreaded to families of the ruling class and scholars. So far as our knowledge goes, the first poem written in praise of Shui Xian in China is “Yong Shui Xian Itua” by Chen Juan (?—989). It appeared, in fact, over a hundred years later than “You Yang Za Zu”. And after another five hundred years or so a botanical book “Ban Cao Hui Bian” by Wan Ji (1522—1566) first reported on this flower. 8o far there has been a considerable number of botanical works in China which also include this beautiful flower. And, to-day, it has become one of the most popular ornamental flowers in this country, especially in the south. Historically, there were two places in China where Shui Xian had been grown: Ja Ding in Jiangsu Province and Zhang Zhou in Fujian Province. From the former, unfortunately, nothing more is heard about the culture of this lovely flower to day. But the latter remains the main growing centre of Shui Xian in China up to now. Two clones are commercially propagated there, one with single flowers, and the otherwith double flowers, both selling equally well in Chinese New Year festival.
  • Xu Wen-Xuan, Xiong Ruo-Li
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(3): 380-384.
    The “Quan Fang Bei Zu”, a first dictionary for Chinese plants, which contains 27 volumes in its first collection and 31 volumes in its second collection, was completed by Chen Jing-yi in 1253, the First Year of Bao You of Li Zong in Song Dynasty. The first part of this encyclopaedia of plants is devoted to flowers. The second part is of more varied nature, dealing with fruit trees, plants in general, herbs, trees, agriculture and sericulture, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. These two collections cover 267 kinds of plants, each of which is described under two categories separately: The first category, “Si Shi Zu” in Chinese, meaning “facts of the plants” concerned, which again divided into 3 entries, i.e. the history, miscellaneous information and sundry bits of the plants. The second category, “Fu Yong Zu” in Chinese, meaning poetry, which divided into 10 meters, wherein the plants are described and eulogized in poetrical expressions. Later on, the “Quan Fang Bei Zu” was used as a blueprint for some famous books in China, for example, the “Qun Fang Pu” and the “Guang Qun Fang Pu” all written and compiled after its model. It is known today that in China there are only two extant hand writting copies of it, one in Beijing Library, the other in the Library of Yunnan University. Both of them are listed as the best national books. Outside China, it is known that a third copy of is in the Congress Library in U.S.A. As for the original wood-carving copy printed during the period of the Song Dynasty, it is known so far that one copy is kept in the Library of Culture Ministry of Japan. The Beijing Agriculture Publishing House has made a decision to photograph this carved copy in the Culture Ministry of Japan as one of the “Precious Series of China Agriculture Science”. The book plays a very important role in the study of chinese botany, agri-culture science, medicine, history and literature.