Table of Contents

18 May 1981, Volume 19 Issue 2
    Research Articles
  • Tsoong Pu-Chiu, Ma Chi-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 143-167.
    The present paper is a revision of the taxonomy of the genus Sophora Linn. of the world. The history of the taxonomy of this genus is reviewed, and the morphological characters of those genera, in dispute in the past, such as Edwardsia and the Goebelia now incorporated into the genus Sophora are discussed. Opinions on some species to be included in this genus together with the previous taxonomical systems are evaluated. The morphological characters of various organs of the plants in this genus are critically analyzed in detail and their taxonomic significance is assessed. The author considers that the characters of the legume structure and their modes of dehiscence are of primary significance in the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus. The new taxonomic system of the genus Sophora Linn. proposed by the author is based chiefly on the characters of legume structure, their different modes of dehiscence and other morphological characters. The proposed system divides the genus Sophora Linn. into two subgenera, seven sections and nineteen series. Subgenus Sophora. Legume consists of three layers of imcomplete pericarp (mesocarp degenerated into two narrow strips), different modes of dehiscence on maturity, and flowers ebractiolate. According to the different modes of dehiscence of legume, the subgenus is subdivided into three sections. Section Disamaea Lindl. Mature legume dehiscing typically into two valves. This section consists of two series and five species. Section Pseudosophora DC. Legume dehisced into two valves along two sutures with apparent torn lines on the surfaces of two valves. This section includes three series and six species. Section Sophora. Legume has a part of the epicarp (including mesocarp and the two sutures) dehiscing along the torn linesk and the endocarp (including a part of the epicarp) dehiscing along two sutures, thus spliting cross wise into four valves. This section includes nine series, thirty one species, twelve varieties, and one forma. Subgenus Styphnolobium (Schott) Tsoong. Legume consists three complete layers of fleshy or woody pericarp, indehiscing upon maturity, and flowers frequently. According to the nature of the various layers of pericarp, this subgenus is subdivided into following sections:Section Raphanocarpus Tsoong. Epicarp is membranous, mesocarp has apparent nerved reticulation, endocarp fleshy, and seeds overlapping. This section has one serices and one species only. Section Arizoniatae Tsoong. Legume is slightly distorted, epicarp membranous, mesocarp fleshy, and endocarp elastic. This section has only one series, two species and one variety. Section Agastianus (Rafin.) Tsoong. Legume epicarp and mesocarp apparently lignified, and endocarp is nearly membranous. This section has only one series and one species. Section Styphnolobium (Schott) Tsoong. Legume epicarp is membranous, mesocarp and endocarp are fleshy, and leaflets with subulate stipel. This section includes two series, two species, four varieties and five formae. Keys to the taxonomical system and species in each series are given. In these keys are included all the species observed by the author, their taxonomical positions can be inferred by descriptions. Species of uncertain taxonomical positions are duely discussed and opinions as to their proper treatment are expressed. A few species, with their specimens unavailable to the author and their taxonomical positions cannot be inferred as judged by the original records, are temporarily put aside at the end of the paper as species of unknown systematical position, until their type specimens are examinedin the future or decisions are made by other taxonomists.
  • Chang Chin-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 168-178.
    The present paper is devoted to a study of the basic morphological and anatomical characteristics of the endemic family Rhoipteleaceae from China. The fundamental pattern of the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the Rhoipteleaceae is similar to those of the Juglandaceae in wood anatomy, resinous peltate scales, apetaly, bicarpellate pistils, one-seeded fruits and exalbuminous seeds. Whereas Rhoipteleaceae has stipules; perfect flowers with superior 2-loculed ovaries, anatropous ovules and two integuments; vessel elements of the secondary xylem with the scalariform perforation, and 2–8 (18) pores on the oblique plate being observable; vascular rays heterocellular and tricolporate pollen. The above characteristics–at least most of them, agree pretty well with those depicted by Manning in his “Pre-Juglandaceae”. It is quite possible that the Juglandaceae is derived from “Pre-Juglandaceae”by way of the Rhoipteleaceae, as the morphological and anatomical features as indicated above tend to show that the Rhoipteleaceae is more primitive than Juglandaceae. The Rhoipteleaceae was previously considered as related to the Betulaceae or Ulmaceae, a view, which the present study does not prove to be acceptable. Both Takhtajan (1969) and Cronquist (1968) pointed out that the Juglandales, Urticales, Myricales, Fagales are all direct derivatives from the Hamamelidales. However, since the Rhoipteleaceae is simillar to the Betulaceae in wood anatomy and pollen, it seems that there too could have certain relationships between the Rhoipteleaceae and the Betula-ceae in the course of evolution.
  • Yu Cheng-Hong
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 179-185.
    Basing on the evidence accumulated during the last few decades in the fields of plant anatomy and paleobotany, the present paper gives a summary in this regard as follows: 1. Scalariform tracheids are more primitive than pitted ones. 2. Torus on the membrane of a bordered pit-pair is a later evolved structure than none on it. 3. Fossil records show that the sequence of evolution in tracheary pitting is from the araucarian type to the coniferous one. 4. Tracheids without crassulae precede those with them. 5. Presence of spiral thickenings on tracheid walls does not show an advanced phenomenon, as in angiosperms, but a conservative one. 6. Absence of wood parenchyma is primitive; sporadically terminal diffuse represents the primitive type of its distribution; diffuse and diffuse in aggregates distributed throughout a growth ring are advanced and more advanced. 7. Ray tracheids have been observed even in Silurian specimens, it may be better to regard them as primitive rather advanced. 8. Resin canals have never been found in Paleozoic fossils but in Mesozoic ones.They are not so primitive as Jeffrey[26]suggested.
  • Sun Xiang-Jun, Kong Zhao-Chen, Li Pun, Li Ming-Xing
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 186-194.
    In the northern part of South China Sea, including Tonkin Gulf, Hainan Island, Leizhou Peninsula and some basins of Guangdong Province, Oligocene deposits are composed of motley, mainly grey, greyish green and dark red clay and sandstone, containing very rich pollen and spores. Most of them are of the components which exsisted in Tertiary, particularly in Oligocene deposits of Northern America and Eurasia, such as Gothanipollis paichanensis Ke & Shi, Ulmus granopollenites Rouse, Symplocos scabropollinia Traverse, Engelhardtia spackmaniana Traverse, etc. At the same time some important Oligocene and Early Miocene pollen types of Borneo are found there, such as Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni Germeraad & al., Florschuetzia semilobata Germeraad & al., F. trilobata Germeraad & al., Magnastriatites howardi Germeraad & al., Jandufouria seamrogiformis Germeraad & al., Verrucatosporites usmansis (Hammen) Germeraad & al., Margocolporites vanwijhci Germeraad & al., Psilatricolporites operculatus Hammen & Wymstra, Monoporites annulatus Hammen and Zonocostites sp., etc. On the other hand in Oligocene palynoflora of Borneo there appear pollen types assigned to temperate plants or mountain plants of northern hemispherae (Pinus, Picea, Tsuga, Ephedra and Alnus), which are found in abundence in Oligocene palynoflara of the investigated area particularly in Late Oligocene. All of this indicats that the palynoflora of the Northern part of South China Sea was closely related with that of Borneo in Oligocene. This similarity of palynofloras in the two localities may be due to the geographycal proximity of Borneo to the main land of Asia. In paleoecological aspect, we have found there is plenty of pollen and spores of land and fresh water plants, while those reflecting marine and coastal enviroments (Rhizophora and Sonneratia) are rather scanty. This shows that in Oligocene period the investigated area was a land. Tonkin Gulf along with Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula formed an inland depression at that time. Abundant pollen of mountain plants and temperate plants indicats, that there weremountains in or around the area of interest.
  • Fu Shun-Mo, Fang Hong-Ju, Liu Guo-Sheng, Xiao Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 195-202.
    Genus Atractylodes (Fam. Compositae) is the main source of two important Chinese traditional drugs, “Baizhu”and “Cangzhu”, both being long used as a stomachic. After a general survey and taxonomical study, it has been found that “Baizhu” was only derived from A. macrocephala Koidz. (A. ovata auct. Fl. Orient. Asiat. non A. P. DC.), while “Cangzhu” were mainly from A. lancea (Thunb.) DC. and A. lancea DC. var. chinensis Kitam. Comparison of the components in the rhizomes of Chinese Atractylodes has been made by TLC and GLC. The results have shown to be in accordance with their morphological features and pharmaceutical merits. “Baizhu”, A. macrocephala, with its leave pinnately incised, is characterized by the presence of rich atractylon and absence or lack of atractylodin. As for “Cangzhu”, A. lancea and A. lancea var. chinensis with their leave not incised or only lobed, are characterized by high contents of atractylodin, β-eudesmol and hinesol, but poor in atractylon. The above conclusion may be of value to both the classification and utilization of this group of Chinese medicinal plants.
  • Wu Cheng-Yi, Wu Zhen-Lan, Huang Rong-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 203-210.
  • Chia Liang-Chi, Fung Hok-Lam
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 211-214.
  • Wu Te-Lin
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 215-221.
  • Hwang Shu-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 222-231.
  • Sha Wen-Lan, Luo Jin-Yu, Chen Xiu-Xiang, Cheng Ching-Yung
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 232-234.
  • Li Pei-Chun
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 235-237.
  • Yang Hsi-Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 238-244.
    The present paper deals with 3 genera,Pugionium Gaertn., Lepidium L. and Torularia O. E. Schulz of the family Cruciferae found in the desert regions of China. Of the genus Pugionium 4 species and 1 new variety and their geographical distribution are recognized. Two closely related species of Lepidium, L. apetalum Willd. and L. ruderale L. and one additional new species are described and their distribution patterns are discussed. Two species of the genus Torularia previously described by V. Botschantzev (1959)are here redused to varietal ranks, and one additional new species is described.
  • Huang Xiu-Lan, Li Hsi-Wen
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 245-249.
  • Chen Pang-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 250-252.
  • Wang Da-Ming, Yang Shao-Zeng, Yang Yung-Kang
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 253-256.
  • Duan Xian-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 257-258.
  • Yang Bao-Min
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 259-260.
  • Dai Qi-Hui
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 261-262.
  • Chang Ting-Chien, Chen Chun-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 263-263.
  • Li Deng-Ke
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 264-266.
  • Lee Yao-Yin
    J Syst Evol. 1981, 19(2): 267-268.