Yü Te-Tsun, Li Chao-Luan
1980, 18 (1): 1-14.
In preparing the manuscript of the Flora of China, the authors have studied all the specimens of the genus Potentilla collected from China for the past fifty years and also some
speciemens collected from Europe and America. Field observations of several species had been
made in the Wild.
In the present paper, the delimitation of the genus has been critically reviewed and a new
systematic arrangement has been proposed. Comparing the Potentilla with its related genera, we
believe that it has been kept to balance and natural within the tribe. For instance, the parts of flower are usually from indefinite to definite and reduced in number, and the receptacle is either dry or spongy, sometimes fleshy after flowering. This kind of alternation reflects the main evo-lutionary trends at generic level. In the genus Potentilla we have given the evolutionary trends of the main organs and indicated the hierarchical structure in different groups. The analysis for the hierarchical structure, coupled with the evolutionary trends has been emphasized in orthodox: taxonomy. We have recognized this genus in a rather wide conception, excluding the genera Fragaria and Duchesnea. The system modified by us differs from Wolf’s system in the secondary division (Sect.) based upon the form of the style and the position where the style was
inserted, but those of Wolf’s system emphasized the indumentum of the ovary. In the linear
sequence of our system, the arrangement was also correspondentcy modified. In consideration of
the general evolutionary trends of the groups, the last group of Wolf’s system (Subsect. Leptostylae Wolf), with the lepto-stylae laterally inserted and usually erect habit, was transfered
as a section prior to Sect. Conostylae (Wolf’s Subsect. Conostylae). Likewise, the mostly prostrate herbs with the terminal nail-shaped styles (Wolf’s Subset. Gomphostylae) as a section
(Sect. Potentilla) was placed at the end of our sytem as an advanced group.
At the end of this paper, 12 sew species and 8 new varieties have been discribed, withthe photographs of the type speciemens published.
Wang Cheng-Ping, Yu Ze-Hua, Ye Guang-Han, Chu Cheng-De, Chao Chi-Son, Chen Shao-Yun, Yao Chang-Yu, Zhao Hui-Ru
1980, 18 (1): 15-19.
Chao Chi-Son, Chu Cheng-De, Hsiung Wen-Yue
1980, 18 (1): 20-36.
The bamboos of China have been studied by some botanists both at home and abroad,
who paid rather less attention to a thoroughly systematic study than to describing new species
or new genera. In the course of our study, we found, some taxinomical mistakes that have
thrown the classification of bamboos into a great confusion. A species, for example, placed in
a wrong genus, or a genus contained some taxonomically divergent species which in fact belong
to different genera.
This paper is a revision of the bamboo classification including some genera and species
which occur in China and have been mistreated taxonomically.
Based on comparative morphology, we first propose to unite Yushania Keng f. with Sinarundinaria Nakai. According to Keng f. (1957), a sympodial rhizome with diageotropical
growth and scattered culms is a main feature distinguishing Yushania from Sinarundinaria, a
treatment which was supported and cited subsequently by W. L. Li (1963) and F. A.
McClure (1957, 1973) in their studies. In fact,the rhizome of the genus Sinarundinaria has
never been critically studied in detail. Nakai (1935) described it as a monopodial type from
carelessness, while most botanists asserted it to be an amphipodial one. We have carefully examined numerous specimens of the type species of Sinarundinaria Nakai (i. e. S. nitida (Mitf.)
Nakai) collected from Sichuan, Shaanxi, Gansu provinces where it occurs naturally, and discovered that its rhizome is a sympodial type with diageotropical growth, too, identical with that
of the superfluous Yushania Keng f. Thus, Yushania must be united with Sinarundinaria.
In E. Asia, alpine bamboos with sympodial rhizomes, scattered culms and short infloresce nces enclosed in spathes have been separately placed in such genera as Arundinaria Michaux
(Hackel, 1887; Gamble, 1893), Thamnocalamus Munro (Munro, 1868; E. G. Camus,
1913), Fargesia Franch. (Franchet, 1893; E. G. Camus 1913; Nakai, 1925; Keng and
Keng f. 1957, 1959) and Sinarundinaria Nakai (Keng and Keng f. 1957, 1959). After a
careful examination of the specimens from various regions we are sure that they belong to a
natural group with common characters of the genus Thamnocalamus Munro. Consequently Fargesia Franch. should be combined with Thamnocalamus Munro.
We also examined some of the type specimens and original descriptions of 9 species of
Semiarundinaria collected from S. China and described in 1940 by McClure. A conclusion
reached is that all these species are not true Semiarundinaria Makino ex Nakai; most of them
should be transferred to Arundinaria Michaux, the rest to Sinobambusa Makino ex Nakai, and
We also agree with the view of some botanists that the genus Sasamorpha Nakai should
be combined with the genus Sasa Makino et Shibata.
In addition, we have emended and recircumscribed the concepts of some genera, such as
Indocalamus and Sinarundinaria which are confused by Nakai himself, and make them morenatural. We have also disclaimed 5 specific binomials, transferred 7 species, and described 7 new species which belong to 5 genera separately.
Jermy A. C
1980, 18 (1): 37-44.
At the outset the paper begins with a brief discussion of the geographical origin of the
genus Dryopteris. With the cytological data so far available the author presumed that the Northern Hemisphere and possibly Eurasia is the geographical origin of the genus and that the
Eastern Himalayas, China and Japan is the centre of speciation of the genus, and thence has
spread to other continents along several routes. He is also of the opinion that the genus tends
to evolve the highest grade of polyploidy where it has existed longest. On the other hand, he
pointed out that the production of polyploids may occur most frequently in response to pressures
which a group meets in the course of its migration in space and time, with the majority of
diploids persisting as relics close to the original centre of diversification.
He then described the progress of the biosystematics of the European and North American
Dryopteris, which has been undertaken through a close cooperation among botanists, cytologists
and phytochemists of different nations. This team is also looking forward to a cooperation with
the Chinese botanists in the study of East Asian species of Dryopteris, so that the relationships
of Chinese species and those of other floras can be understood.
The term biosystematics had been invented to mean experimental studies of breeding systems of the species concerned in order to ellucidate their evolutionary relationships. It stems
from the early researches of Professor Irene Manton whose classical book “Problems of Cytology
and Evolution in the Pteridophyta” (1950) laid the foundation of Biosystematics. Manton was
also the first to introduce the acetocarmine squash method for staining chromosomes in the
spore-mother-cells at meiosis.
The lecture was illustrated with diagrams showing in detail the pairing behaviour of the
chromosomes at the metaphase in meiosis and the formation of the polyploidies of different
Besides cytological approach two other techniques have been also applied to the systematic
studies of Dryopteris. The first is the comparison of sporoderms using the scaning electron
microscope, revealing different ornamentations on the pericine. The second is the study of plant
chemistry, in particular, that of the phloroglucinoles by thinlayer chromatography.
The remaining far greater part of the paper is devoted to analysing cytologically the European and North American species of Dryopteris in three groups, showing the lines of experi-mental work that has resulted in the understanding of their evolutional relationship
Sheh Meng-Lan, Shan Ren-Hwa
1980, 18 (1): 45-49.
Cyclorhiza, a new genus based upon Ligusticum waltonii Wolff, is here proposed. From
the ample materials now in our herbarium, we found that the genus differs from the species
of Ligusticum. As the result of our study, the systematic position of this new genus should
be considered as a member of the tribe Smyrnieae Koch.
Chuanminshen, another new monotypic genus, is here also proposed. It was often considered
as not different from Changium Wolff, but it is a cleary deliminated natural genus being quite
remote from Changium Wolff. This new genus is quite reasonably to be placed in the tribePeucedaneae.
1980, 18 (1): 50-52.
While we were investigating the world Veroniceae we found the genus Wulfenia Jacq.
discontinuously distributing. W. carinthiaca and W. baldaccii are found in south-eastern Europe
and W. orientalis in Turkey and Lebanon, whereas W. amherstiana is a native of W. Himalaya. Such a pattern of distribution, discontinuous between the Mediterranean and W. Himalaya, as far as we know, is hardly frequent. After comparing carefully the specimens from these
two places and examining their pollen grains we got the impression that the difference between
the plants occuring near the Mediterranean and those in Himalaya is so big that they should
no longer be placed in the same genus. It would be necessary, therefore, to describe W. amherstiana as a new and separate genus (we name it Wulfeniopsis Hong). Its corolla is not 2-lipped, but with four lobes (not five) lanceolate, acuminate and erect (not spreading). The
stigma is very small, not 2-lobed. Pollen grains are much smaller, with colpi more narrow and
lacking of membranes, and their exines are smooth (not reticulate). It’s chromosome numberis 2n = 16 (not 18).
He Ting-Nong, Liu Shang-Wu
1980, 18 (1): 75-85.
1980, 18 (1): 101-105.
The genus Adiantum L. of China was monographically treated over twenty years ago by
R. C. Ching (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6:348-454 1957). Since then new materials have been
collected by botanical institutions in different provinces of China. In connection with the work of the Flora of China Project, the present paper aims primarily to make some new additions to
our knowledge of the genus in China and also some necessary nomenclatural and toxonomical
corrigenda to the previous literature citations involved.
The writer wishes to express thanks of gratitude to Professor R. C. Ching for his encou-ragement and constant guidance during the course of the work.