J Syst Evol ›› 2017, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (6): 581-590.doi: 10.1111/jse.12275

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Evolution of floral zygomorphy in androecium and corolla in Solanaceae

Jingbo Zhang1, Peter F. Stevens2, and Wenheng Zhang1*   

  1. 1Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1000 West Cary Street, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
    2Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 1 University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA
  • Received:2017-04-04 Online:2017-08-11 Published:2017-11-16

Abstract: In Solanaceae, a group dominated by actinomorphic-flowered species, floral zygomorphy is frequently observed among the early-branching clades. Morphological studies indicated that a zygomorphic androecium is much more common than a zygomorphic corolla in the family. Ontogenic studies suggested the evolution of floral zygomorphy in these two whorls is independent. Here, we have examined the evolution of floral symmetry in the androecium and corolla in Solanaceae. The character states of floral symmetry were assembled for androecium and corolla separately, and ancestral state reconstructions were carried out at both the genus and species levels for Solanaceae and its outgroups. Correlation tests were performed to determine whether the presence of floral zygomorphy in the androecium and corolla is correlated. The ancestral state reconstructions suggest the flower of the most recent common ancestor of Solanaceae is likely zygomorphic in the androecium but actinomorphic in the corolla. Multiple losses and gains of floral zygomorphy in androecium and corolla explain the existing pattern of floral symmetry in Solanaceae. A significant positive correlation between the possession of floral zygomorphy in the androecium and corolla of Solanaceae was detected. Floral zygomorphy likely has evolved in androecium and corolla along separate evolutionary trajectories, and zygomorphy in the androecium may be a precursor for the many gains of zygomorphy in the corolla in Solanaceae.

Key words: ancestral state reconstruction, character, character states, Convolvulaceae, correlated evolution, floral symmetry, floral zygomorphy, phylogeny, Solanaceae, Solanales

[1] Bing Liu, Yun-Hong Tan, Su Liu, Richard G. Olmstead, Dao-Zhang Min, Zhi-Duan Chen, Nirmal Joshee, Brajesh N. Vaidya, Richard C. K. Chung, and Bo Li. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyrtandromoea and Wightia revisited: A new tribe in Phrymaceae and a new family in Lamiales . J Syst Evol, 2020, 58(1): 1-17.
[2] Santiago Martín‐Bravo, Pedro Jiménez‐Mejías, Tamara Villaverde, Marcial Escudero, Marlene Hahn, Daniel Spalink, Eric H. Roalson, Andrew L. Hipp, and the Global Carex Group (Carmen Benítez-Benítez, Leo P. Bruederle, Elisabeth Fitzek, Bruce A. Ford, Kerry A. Ford, Mira Garner, Sebastian Gebauer, Matthias H. Hoffmann, Xiao-Feng Jin, Isabel Larridon, Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, Yi-Fei Lu, Modesto Luceño, Enrique Maguilla, Jose Ignacio Márquez‐Corro, Mónica Míguez, Robert Naczi, Anton A. Reznicek, and Julian R. Starr). A tale of worldwide success: Behind the scenes of Carex (Cyperaceae) biogeography and diversification . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(6): 695-718.
[3] Shu-Li Wang, Lang Li, Xiu-Qin Ci, John G. Conran, and Jie Li. Taxonomic status and distribution of Mirabilis himalaica (Nyctaginaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(5): 431-439.
[4] Santiago Andrés-Sánchez, G. Anthony Verboom, Mercè Galbany-Casals, and Nicola G. Bergh. Evolutionary history of the arid climate‐adapted Helichrysum (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae): Cape origin and association between annual life‐history and low chromosome numbers . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(5): 468-487.
[5] Xin Ding, Jian Hua Xiao, Lang Li, John G. Conran, and Jie Li. Congruent species delimitation of two controversial gold‐thread nanmu tree species based on morphological and restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing data . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(3): 234-246.
[6] Qiu-Jie Zhou, Che-Wei Lin, Jin-Hong Dai, Ren-Chao Zhou, and Ying Liu. Exploring the generic delimitation of Phyllagathis and Bredia (Melastomataceae): A combined nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(3): 256-267.
[7] Hyoung Tae Kim, Jung Sung Kim, You Mi Lee, Jeong-Hwan Mun, and Joo-Hwan Kim. Molecular markers for phylogenetic applications derived from comparative plastome analysis of Prunus species . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(1): 15-22.
[8] Wu-Qin Xu, Jocelyn Losh, Chuan Chen, Pan Li, Rui-Hong Wang, Yun-Peng Zhao, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Cheng-Xin Fu. Comparative genomics of figworts (Scrophularia, Scrophulariaceae), with implications for the evolution of Scrophularia and Lamiales . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(1): 55-65.
[9] Jonathan P. Price and Warren L. Wagner. Origins of the Hawaiian flora: Phylogenies and biogeography reveal patterns of long‐distance dispersal . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(6): 600-620.
[10] Joseph T. Miler, Garry Jolley-Rogers, Brent D. Mishler, and Andrew H. Thornhill. Phylogenetic diversity is a better measure of biodiversity than taxon counting . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(6): 663-667.
[11] Sadaf Habib, Viet-Cuong Dang, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen, Li-Min Lu. Evolutionary trends in Tetrastigma (Vitaceae): Morphological diversity and taxonomic implications . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(4): 360-373.
[12] Shi-Yong Dong, Cheng-Wei Chen, Shi-Shi Tan, Hui-Guo Zhao, Zheng-Yu Zuo, Yi-Shan Chao, Yi-Han Chang. New insights on the phylogeny of Tectaria (Tectariaceae), with special reference to Polydictyum as a distinct lineage . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(2): 139-147.
[13] Xin-Mao Zhou, Liang Zhang, Ngan Thi Lu, Xin-Fen Gao, Li-Bing Zhang. Pteridryaceae: A new fern family of Polypodiineae (Polypodiales) including taxonomic treatments . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(2): 148-173.
[14] Chi-Toan Le, Bing Liu, Russell L. Barrett, Li-Min Lu, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen. Phylogeny and a new tribal classification of Opiliaceae (Santalales) based on molecular and morphological evidence . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(1): 56-66.
[15] S. Robbert Gradstein, Rui-Liang Zhu, Lei Shu, Álvaro J. Pérez. Reinerantha foliicola, a new genus and species of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Cololejeuneinae (Marchantiophyta) from Ecuador . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(1): 67-75.
Full text



[1] Fusuo Zhang Zhenling Cui Jiqing Wang Chunjian Li Xinping Chen . Current status of soil and plant nutrient management in China and improvement strategies.[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(06): 687 -694 .
[2] Xu Xinrong and Shao Huaying. The Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation of Pollen Grains of two Species of Pharbitis[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1983, 1(02): 54 .
[3] Guoqi Song, Xingjun Wang, Aiqin Li, Changsheng Li. Research Progress in Suspensor of Angiosperms[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2012, 47(2): 188 -195 .
[4] Manlan Zhu, Liangsheng Wang, Huijin Zhang, Yanjun Xu, Xuchen Zheng, Lijin Wang. Relationship Between the Composition of Anthocyanins and Flower Color Variation in Hardy Water Lily (Nymphaea spp.) Cultivars[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2012, 47(5): 437 -453 .
[5] Mao Xue-wen. A Problem Worth to Discuss - Asexual Reproduction and Vegetative Propagation of Plant[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(04): 56 -58 .
[6] WU Hui, DAI Hai-Fang, ZHANG Ju-Song, JIAO Xiao-Ling, LIU Cui, SHI Jun-Yi, FAN Zhi-Chao, and ALIYAN?Rouzi. Responses of photosynthetic characteristics to low temperature stress and recovery treatment in cotton seedling leaves[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2014, 38(10): 1124 -1134 .
[8] WU Yun-Na, LI Zheng-Hai. Changing of Landscape Diversity with Time in Xilinguole Steppe[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2000, 24(1): 58 -63 .
[9] Wang Renzhong. Density-Dependence of Calamagrostis epigejos in Songnen Grassland[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1998, 22(1): 85 -89 .
[10] ZHANG Liang, XING Fu, YU Li-Li, XU Kun, SUN Zhong-Lin, Lü Xian-Guo. PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF THE ISLAND FOREST IN A MARSH IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(3): 582 -590 .