J Syst Evol ›› 2023, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (4): 572-586.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12855

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A comprehensive analysis of higher-level phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera based on transcriptome data

Nan Song* and Heng Zhang   

  1. College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
    *Author for correspondence. E‐mail: songnan@henau.edu.cn
  • Received:2022-01-24 Revised:2022-04-07 Online:2022-04-18 Published:2023-07-01

Abstract: Hemiptera is the largest order of non-holometabolous insects. Recent phylogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. However, parts of the hemipteran tree remain unclear. In this study, we have sequenced transcriptomes from five sternorrhynchan species, four exemplars from Aphididae, and one from Monophlebidae. The addition of published transcriptome data produced alignments of >105?000 amino acids from 224 hemipteran taxa in 30 superfamilies covering all suborder and infraorder clades. The data confirmed the Sternorrhyncha superfamily relationship of Aleyrodoidea?+?(Psylloidea?+?[Coccoidea?+?Aphidoidea]). In addition, phylogenomic analyses supported a basal split of Sternorrhyncha and the remaining hemipteran lineages. The Fulgoromorpha formed a sister clade to Cicadomorpha, with strong support. Therefore, our results supported the monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha. The Coleorrhyncha was robustly resolved as a sister group of Auchenorrhyncha, contrary to the concept of the Heteropterodea. Within Heteroptera, the Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha, and Gerromorpha were resolved as the earliest branching groups, while the Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, and Pentatomomorpha were the successive sister groups to the remaining clades in the series. The Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha were sister groups that occupied the most apical branches of the heteropteran tree. Although some phylogenetic estimates yielded conflicting hypotheses for superfamily relationships of Cicadomorpha, Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM) analyses revealed a greater phylogenetic signal for the relationship of Membracoidea?+?(Cicadoidea?+?Cercopoidea).

Key words: Hemiptera, phylogeny, Sternorrhyncha, transcriptome