Table of Contents
  • Volume 21 Issue 4

      
    Research Articles
    The Editorial Board
    1983, 21 (4): 353-354.
    Wu Cheng-Yih, Chen Shu-Kun
    1983, 21 (4): 355-369.
    The genus Gynostemma B1. consists of 13 species and 2 varieties in the whole world, among which 11 species and 2 varieties occur in China. They are distributed in S. Shaanxi and the southern part of the Yangtze River (including Taiwan province) in China and also in Korea, Japan, Sri Lanka, India and Malesia. Based on the characters and dehiscence of fruit, the genus Gynostemma B1. may be divided into two subgenera, i.e. Subgen. I. Gynostemma and Subgen. II. Trirostllum (Z. P. Wang et Q. Z. Xie) C. Y. Wu ct S. K. Chen, comb. nov. 1. Subgenus Gynostemma. The fruits are baccate, globose, 3-umbonate and incorni culate on the apical side, indehiscent when mature. The style apex in female flower is bifid. Type of subgenus: Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Mak. This subgenus contains 8 species and 2 varieties in the world, among which 6 species and 2 varieties occur in China, i.e.1.G. simplicifolium B1. (Yunnan, Hainan of Guangdong); 2. G. laxum (Wall.) Cogn. (S. Yunnan, Hainan of Guangdong and Guangxi); 3. G. burmanicum King ex Chakr. (Yunnan), 3a. G. burmanicum var. molle C. Y. Wu (Yunnan); 4. G. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Mak. (S. Shaanxi and the soutern area of the Yangtze River of China), 4a. G. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Mak. var. dasycarpum C. V. Wu (Yunnan); 5. G. pubescens (Gagnep.) C. Y. Wu, st. nov. (Yunnan); 6. G. longipes C. Y. Wu, sp. nov. (endemic to China: Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Shaanxi and Guangxi). 2. Subgenus Trirostellum (Z. P. Wang et Q. Z. Xie) C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen, comb. nov.——Trirostellum Z. P. Wang et Q. Z. Xie in Acta Phytotaxonomia Sinica 19 (4): 483. 1981, syn. nov. The fruit are capsules, subcampanulate, 3-corniculate on the apical side, dehiscent when mature. The style apex in female flower is luniform and irregularly denticulate at margin, rarely bifid. Type of subgenus: Gynostemma cardiospermum Cogn. ex Oliv. This subgenus comprises 5 species, which are all endemic to China. 1. G. yixingense (Z. P. Wang et Q. Z. Xie) C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen (Jiangsu and Zhejiang); 2. G. cardio spermum Cogn. ex Oliv. (Hubei, Shaanxi and Sichuan); 3. G. microspermum C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen (S. Yunnan); 4. G. aggregatum C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen (NW. Yunnan); 5. G.laxiflorum C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen (Anhui).
    Yu Zhi-Xiong
    1983, 21 (4): 368-368.
    Wu Shiew-Hung
    1983, 21 (4): 370-385.
    The Peranemaceae was first proposed by C. B. Presl (1836) as a tribe under the Order Filicaceae Suborder II. Cathetogyratae Cohort V. Hymenophoreae and was placed between the tribes Cyatheaceae and Aspidiaceae in his system. Apparently Presl recognized the re lationships of the three tribes with Peranemaceae as a link between the other two tribes. In the past century after Presl, the arguments regarding the systematic position of the Peranemaceae has been chiefly centered around Dicksonia, Cyathea, Woodsia, Dryopteris and Aspidium. The peculiar morphological characteristics of Peranemaceae have attracted the at tention of many morphologist in the last fifty years or so. As a result the circumscriptions for this group of fern have become much clearer than heretofore. The current general opinion supports the Peranemaceae as consisting of Peranema Don, Diacalpe B1. and Acrophorus Presl, although the status of the three genera remains an open question. Early in 1940 R. C. Ching proposed for the first time Peranemaceae as a separate family, but not until 1978 he formally declared the validity of the family by citing the tribe Peranemaceae Presl as reference, with Peranema, Diacalpe and Acrophorus as its legitimate constituents. Phylogenetically, Peranemaceae is derived from the Dryopteroid stock and its relationships with Dryopteridaceae and Aspidiaceae are selfevident, because they have many morphological and anatomical characteristics in common, yet it differs from both families in other important aspects, such as inferior sorus enclosed in a globose indusium and the presence on fronds of the thick septake, often dark red hairs. On the other hand, the Peranemaceae have a number of characters in common with Cyatheaceae such as the elevated receptacle of sori, the haracteristically multicelluar hairs on the underside of the gametophyte and the antheridium provided with a divided lid cell, but markedly different in the morphology of sprangia, bilateral spores and base chromosome numbers. All in all it seems that Peranemaceae have synthesized the main characteristics of Cyatheaceae, Dryopteridaceae and Aspidiaceae as already noted by both Bower and Davie, in addition to the irown peculiarities. Fern students today generally agree upon the Cyatheoid origin of the family Dryopteridaceae, for which Peranemaceae may serve as an additional evidence. As to the much argued generic status of the three constituent genera of the family Peranemaceae, i.e. Peranema, Diacalpe and Acrophorus, we maintain that they are distinct from each other as shown in the following key. As to the systematic position of Lithostegia Ching and Nothoperanema Ching, they are legitimate members of Dryopteridaceae, the former more closely related to the genus Arachniodes than to any other genera, while the latter to Dryopteris especially the group of D. wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl. Geographycally the family Peranemaceae so far known are chiefly ferns of the Asia mainland, especially southwestern China (Yunnan, Sichuan and southeastern Xizang), and also upper Burma, with very a few species extending eastwardly to Malesia, Indonesia, and the Phillippines. Finally, the author wishes to express thanks of gratitude to Professor R. C. Ching for his constant guidance and instruction.
    Chen Wei-Chiu
    1983, 21 (4): 386-403.
    This paper presenta a brief introduction to the taxonomy and geographic distribution of the genus Wendlandia. The genus Wendlandia in tribe Rondeletieae of the family Rubiaceae was proposed by Bartling in 1830. There are now more than ninety species throughout the world. It is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical Asia. Thirty species, ten subspecies and three varieties are recorded in the paper. Among these, nine species, two subspecies and one variety are new. They are distributed mainly in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Xizang and Taiwan Provinces. Only one species, namely W. longidens (Hance) Hutch. Extends northward to Hubei and Sichuan. The classification of the genus in this paper is based on Cowan's system. It is divided into four series mainly by their stigmatic and staminal characters, namely Euexsertae, Subinclusae, Montigenae and Clavigerae. The first two series are each subdivided according to the stipule feature into two subseries, designated as Cuspidatae, Orbiculares, Tinctoriae and Paniculatae. From the distribution patterns of the genus in the flora of China, we may understand: 1. The genus has the most species in China, where is its distribution centre, and Yurnan is the province richest in species of the genus. 2. There are twenty-one species, five subspecies and three varieties endemic to China. Most of these endemics have their distributional area confined to a single province, and some of them are confined to an even narrower district, with only a few of them extending beyond province boundaries. 3. The series Subinclusae Cowan has the most species not only in China but also in other regions of the world, whereas the series Montigenae Cowan has fewer species and they are all restricted to China. The new species, new subspecies and the new varieties described in this paper are as follows: W. brevipaniculata W. C. Chen, W..villosa W. C. Chen, W. tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. subsp. affinis How, W. laxa S. K. Wu, W. uvariifolia Hance subsp. pilosa W. C. Chen, W. guangdongensis W. C. Chen, W. parviflora W. C. Chen, W. scabra Kurz var. pilitera How, W. pubigera W. C. Chen, W. jingdongensis W. C. Chen, W. brevituba Chun et Howand W. oligantha W. C. Chen. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    Chen Shou-Liang, Chen Shao-Yun, Sheng Guo-Ying
    1983, 21 (4): 404-415.
    This paper deals with the taxa of tribe Arundinarieae Steud. subtribe Pleiobalastinae Keng and Keng f. which comprised three genera (Pseudosasa Makino, Pleioblastus Nakai and Brachystachyum Keng) when it was established in 1957. With the analysis of morphological characters and geographical distribution, a number of revisions connected with the taxon are made as follows: (1) Genus Brachystachyum Keng is transferred to the tribe Shibataeeae Nakai according to its false inflorescence. (2) Genus Pseudosasa Makino is transferred to subtribe Sasinae Keng f. according to our study on the numerical taxonomic method. (3) Some species of Pleioblastus Nakai established by Keng and Keng f. should be revised. Pleioblastus actinotrichus (Merr. and Chun) Keng f. should be Ampelocalamus actinotrichus (Merr. and Chun) S. L. Chen, T. H. Wen and G. Y. Sheng in subtribe Thamnocalaminae Keng f.; Pleioblastus dolichanthus (Keng) Keng f. is the synonym of Sinobambusa tootsik (Sieb.) Makino, belonging to tribe Shibataeeae Nakai. The rest species remain in this genus. Since the genus Pleioblastus is related to genus Arundinaria Michaux., subtribe Pleioblastus Keng and Keng f. does not seem to have a reason to be retained as a subtribe in tribe Arundinarieae Steud., according to the newest Code (1978). A part of it should be a synonym of subtribe Arundinariinae and we may cite it as follows: Subtribe Arundinariinae——Subtribe Pleioblastinae Keng and Keng f. pro parte, syn. nov. The other parts of it should be transferred to other subtribes or tribes. In addition, one new variety in Branchystachyum, two new species, one new variety in Pseudosasa and six new species, three new varieties in Pleioblastus, are described in this paper.
    Chen Cheih
    1983, 21 (4): 416-422.
    In this paper, the present writer has discussed the lemurian intercontinental discontinuous distribution of the genus Medinilla of Melastomataceae between Tropical Asia and Tropical Africa. It appears to be that the genus was first brought to Eurasia continent from Africa continent as a result of Indian Plate drift. Therefore we conjecture that the genus probably occurred in Upper Cretaceous and its birthplace is probably in the southern part of Gondwanaland. In addition, we have reduced the genus Pseudodissochaeta M. P. Nayar published in 1969, because in this taxon the extra-ovarial chambers may go down to the middle or to the base of the ovary, as in other genera of Melastomataceae. Besides, no differences in pollen have been found between the taxon and the genus Medinilla.
    Hu Zhi-Ang, Wang Hong-Xin, Yan Long-Fei
    1983, 21 (4): 423-432.
    By means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, peroxidases of 59 species and 4 varieties, belonging to ten genera of Pinaceae, were analysed. Though intraspecific zymogramatic variation may be observed within a few species, each species possesses its specific zymogram, distinguishable from the others. In order to measure divergence between two taxa, we have defined “zymogram distance” as follows: number of different bands between two taxa zymogram distance= —————————————— total number of bands in the same two taxa Similar tendencies are shown among average intergeneric zymogram distances, antigenic distances (Prager et al. 1976), and generic divergence time. Molecular evidences support classical taxonomy of Pinaceae. Agreed with the data from Populus, the evolutionary rate of plant peroxidase seems stable. The possible contribution of zymogram to investigation of molecular and morphological evolution of plants is discussed.
    He Guan-Fu, Ma Zhong-Wu, Yin Wan-Fen
    1983, 21 (4): 433-435.
    Kayaflavone has been isolated from leaves of Torreya jackii Chun, a species endemic to China. Seven species, belonging to Taxus, Pseudotaxus, Amentotaxus as well as Torreya, in Taxaceae were examined for kayaflavone, which has been detected only in the genus Torreya. The result seems to justify the separation of the genus from the others and the establishment of the monotypic tribe, Torreyeae.
    Lan Yong-Zhen, Cheo Tai-Yien
    1983, 21 (4): 436-440.
    The present paper deals with the pollen morphology of 10 species and 1 variety of Loxostemon in China. The pollen grains were all examined under light microscope. The pollen grains of Loxostemon are subspheroidal, spheroidal or prolate, 18--33×11.8-28 μ in size, 3-colpate, colpi 15-21 μ long and 1-2 μ wide. The exine is 1.5-3 μ thick with two indistinct or distinct layers. All the pollen grains are generally reticulate under light microscope. They are distinctly or obscurely and finely reticulate. L. axillus and L. repens are generally similar in gross morphology, but the pollen grains of these two species are different. The pollen grains of L. axillus are regularly polygonally reticulate, colpi are acute-ended and the exine is about 3 μ thick, whereas those of L.repens are irregularly polygonally reticulate, colpi are enlarged at both ends and the exine is about 2.8 μ thick. L. incanus and L. stenolobus appear to have similar gross morphology, but the pollen grains of the former have exines with two distinct layers and a densely and finely reticulate ornamentation and those of the latter have exines with two indistinct layers and a flexuosely reticulate ornamentation.
    Zhang Yu-Long
    1983, 21 (4): 441-444.
    Kingdonia uniflora Balfour f. et W. W. Smith is endemic to China. Pollen grains of this species were examined under light microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the structure of exine under transmission electron microscope. The pollen grains are tricolpate, prolate or subprolate, 27.8-35.7μ× 23.5-29.6μ. There are some granules on the colpus membranes. The exine is semitectate, striato-reticulate, and 2-layered, with distinct tectum and columllae. According to Walker's idea about pollen evolution in primitive angiosperms, the pollen of the genus does not seem to be primitive. Forster (1961) considers the pollen of Kingdonia as tricolporate, but it is tricolpate in our observation. Some taxonomists (Wang, 1957, 1980, Hutchison, 1937) put this genus in Ranunculaceae, but Forster (1961) treated it as an independent family. Pollen morphology supports placing Kindgonia in Ranunculaceae, because tricolpate type of pollen is one of the principal pollen types in the family. According to Zhang (1982), chromosomes of Kingdonia are similar to those of the genus Coptis. The genus under discussion was then removed from Trib. Anemoneae (Subfam. Ranunculoideae) into Subfam. Thalictroideae as a new tribe (Trib. Kingdonieae W. T. Wang et C. Y. Chang). But pollen grains of Coptis are generally pantoporate, and thus more advanced than those of Kingdon Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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    Li Lin-Chu, Hsu Ping-Sheng
    1983, 21 (4): 445-448.
    A karyotypical analysis of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bung. of the monotypic genus Anemarrhena Bung. (Liliaceae) was carried out for the first time. The number of chromosomes in root-tip cell of the species was found to be 22, agreeing with that reported by Sato[12], although inconsistent in some other respects, such as position of centromeres, length of chromosomes, and nucleoli, etc. (Table 1 ). According to the terminology defined by Levan et al.[8], the karyotype formula is therefore 2n=22=2sm (SAT)+2sm+18m. Photomicrographs of the chromosome complements and idiogram of the karyotype are given Fig. 1 and 2). The karyotype of Anemarrhena asphodeloides shows explicitly to be asymmetrical, with three pairs of long chromosomes and eight pairs of short chromosomes. This specialized feature, when considered together with the rare occurrence of the basic chromosome number of 11 of the genus within the Tribe Asphodeleae of Liliaceae (see Table 1), suggests that the genus Anemarrhena is probably a rather specialized one, which has scarcely any intimate relationship with the other genera of the above tribe. The fact that this specialized karyotype is associated with certain trends of morphological specialization, such as flowers possessing three stamens only, gives support to the above suggestion. But, it is impossible to draw a more precise conclusion without a more thorough and comprehensive investigation of the species in question.
    Chen Jia-You, Zhu Hui-Zhong
    1983, 21 (4): 449-456.
    This paper deals with a taxonomic study of two diatoms collected in Xizang (Tibet) and, based upon the peculiarities of their rapheal system, a new taxonomic system of the Class Pennatae is proposed. One of the diatoms was found in fifteen specimens collected in various localities (alt. 4100--5300 m) in eight counties in southern, western and northern Xizang, and has been identified as Amphiraphia xizangensis Chen et Zhu, a new genus and a new species, including a variety, major Chen et Zhu. This species is epiphytic in habit (sometimes becomes freefloating) and characterized by its two valves of a frustule dissimilar in structure: the epitheca has a dotted-line shaped shaphe with a more or less reduced central nodule and without the polar nodules, whereas the hypotheca has a typical raphe with both the well developed central nodule and polar nodules. These most striking structures have not been discovered in all the known species. Thus, based upon the pecularities of this genus, the authors have established not only a new family, Amphiraphiaceae Chen et Zhu, but also a new order, Amphiraphidales Chen et Zhu. The other is a well known and widely distributed species, Rhoicosphenia curvata (Kütz.) Grun. This genus has always been placed in the Achnanthaceae. As We know that the alga does not have frustules with a pseudoraphe on one valve and a true raphe on the other as stated by Boyer (1927) and Smith (1950). In fact, it has only a rudimentary short raphe near each pole on the epitheca and a fully developed raphe on the hypotheca as mentioned by Cleve-Euler (1958), Hustedt (1962), and Patrick and Reimer (1966) and obse rved by the authors in the Xizang specimens. The alga is really similar to Amphiraphia xizangensis Chen et Zhu in having two valves dissimilar in rapheal type. Thus, based upon its generic characteristics the authors have established another new family, Rhoicospheniaceae Chen et Zhu, and placed it in the order Amphiraphidales Chen et Zhu too. Regarding the systematic position of the Amphiraphidales, the following principles are considered: 1. It is evident that the free-floating or motile diatoms existing in the geological periods are really older than the epiphytic ones. This has been proved by some discoveries of the fossil diatoms. 2. Both epitheca and hypotheca of frustule of all the free-living diatoms, induding both centric and pennate species, are symmetrical in both valves and girdle-views, but, the epiphytic forms are usually asymmetrical, especially in a girdle-view. 3. The characteristics of rapheal system are often used by former algologists as a main taxonomic basis for considering category of pennate diatoms and affinity among them. The authors agree with this consideration. 4. In this paper Hustedt's classification of pennate diatoms is used as a basis for considering the phylogenetic problems of these diatoms, but the authors cite Schütt's Class Pennatae, instead of Hustedt's order Pennales; Sieminska's orders, Araphidales, Raphidioidales, Monoraphidales, and Biraphidales, instead of Hustedt's Suborders, Araphidineae, Raphidioidineae, Monoraphidineae, and Biraphidineae. 5. The rapheal system on the epitheca of the Amphiraphidales is really a reduced structure derived from a typical form represented by the Biraphidales, and may be regarded as a transitional type from that of the Biraphidales to that of Monoraphidales. 6. Owing to the epitheca of the type genus Rhoicosphenia Grun. of the family Rhoicospheniaceae lacking the central nodule and a great part of its axial area becoming a pseudoraphe, the authors consider that the family is more close to Monoraphidales than Amphiraphiaceae is in phylogeny. According to the principles set forth above, a taxonomic system of the Pennatae is proposed as follows: Class Pennatae Schütt Order I. Araphidales Siem. Order II. Raphidioidales Siem. Order III. Biraphidales Siem. Order IV. Amphiraphidales Chen et Zhu, ord.nov. Family I. Amphiraphiaceae Chen et Zhu, fam. nov. Family 2. Rhoicospheniaceae Chen et Zhu, fam. nov. Order V. Monoraphidales Siem. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    Fang Wen-Pei
    1983, 21 (4): 457-469.
    Five new species of the genus Rhododendron are described from China. They are R. hododendron oreogenum L. C. Hu, R. pugeense L. C. Hu, R. trichogynum L. C. Hu, R. lulangense L. C. Hu et Y. Tateishi, R. torquatumL. C. Hu and additional fruit description of R. balangense Fang is also given.
    Li Hsi-Wen
    1983, 21 (4): 470-472.
    Chen Chia-Jui
    1983, 21 (4): 473-478.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
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JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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