J Syst Evol ›› 2017, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (1): 34-43.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12220

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phylogenetic position of two endemic Carthamus species in Algeria and their potential as sources of genes for water use efficiency improvement of safflower

Imane Mihoub1*, Thierry Robert2,3, Jaleh Ghashghaie2, Roser Vilatersana4, Françoise Lamy2, Reda Benmrid2, Marlène Lamothe-Sibold5,6, and Fatiha Aid1   

  1. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes (LBPO), Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari-Boumediene (USTHB), BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Alegria
    2Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 91400, Orsay, France
    3Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris06, IFD, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    4Botanical Institute of Barcelona (IBB-CSIC-ICUB), Passeig del Migdia s.n. Parc de Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain
    5Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, CNRS, INRA, Université Paris-Sud, Université Evry, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Orsay, France
    6Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Orsay, France
  • Received:2016-01-08 Published:2017-01-12

Abstract: Despite the high economic value of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), the potential of several wild related species as genetic resources is still poorly studied, in particular with regards to drought tolerance, a priority in safflower improvement. This situation is partially explained by the numerous and still discussed uncertainties in phylogenetic relationships within the safflower species complex. In this study, we focused on two rare Algerian wild species, Carthamus strictus and Carthamus chouletteanus. We aimed at: (i) clarifying their taxonomic status, and determining their phylogenetic relationships with safflower and other Mediterranean species ofCarthamus sensu lato (s.l.) (Carthamus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Carduncellus genera) by using nucleotide diversity within the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and (ii) assessing the water use efficiency (WUE) of these species by determining their carbon isotope composition. Our results support the existence of two well supported different clusters among the safflower species complex: Carthamus s.s. including Eastern annual species and the vast Carduncellus group constituted by Western perennial species, including the two studied Algerian species. Also, significant differences for carbon isotopic composition between Carthamus s.s. andCarduncellus were revealed. Carduncellus species displayed significantly higher δ13C values (i.e., higher WUE) than Carthamus s.s. species. Carthamus chouletteanus displayed the highest average value of δ13C (highest WUE) among the species studied. Our data encourage for further studies on the possibility of hybridisations between species of the two genera and suggest that Carduncellus should be considered as potentially more interesting genetic resources to improve the WUE of safflower, rather than Carthamus s.s. species.

Key words: carbon isotope composition, Carduncellus, Carthamus chouletteanus, Carthamus strictus, internal transcribed spacer, species complex