J Syst Evol ›› 2019, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 579-593.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12504

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Worldwide long‐distance dispersal favored by epizoochorous traits in the biogeographic history of Omphalodeae (Boraginaceae)

Ana Otero1,2*, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías3,4, Virginia Valcárcel3,4, and Pablo Vargas1   

  1. 1Departamento de Biodiversidad, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC. Pza. de Murillo, 2, Madrid 28014, Spain
    2Escuela Internacional de Doctorado, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipán s/n, Móstoles 28933, Spain
    3Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC‐UAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain
    4Departamento de Biología (Botánica), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Darwin, 2, Madrid 28049, Spain
  • Received:2018-10-01 Accepted:2019-04-12 Published:2019-11-01

Abstract: Biogeographic dispersal is supported by numerous phylogenetic results. In particular, transoceanic dispersal, rather than vicariance, is suggested for some plant lineages despite current long distances between America and Europe. However, few studies on the biogeographic history of plants have also studied the role of diaspore syndromes in long‐distance dispersal (LDD). Species of the tribe Omphalodeae (Boraginaceae) offer a suitable study system because the species have a wide variety of diaspore traits related to LDD and different lineages conform to patched worldwide distributions on three distant continents (Europe, America and New Zealand). Our aim is to reconstruct the biogeographical history of the Omphalodeae and to investigate the role of diaspore traits favoring LDD and current geographic distributions. To this end, a time‐calibrated phylogeny with 29 of 32 species described for Omphalodeae was reconstructed using biogeographical analyses (BioGeoBEARS, Lagrange) and models (DEC and DIVA) under different scenarios of land connectivity. Character‐state reconstruction (SIMMAP) and diversification rate estimations of the main lineages were also performed. The main result is that epizoochorous traits have been the ancestral state of LDD syndromes in most clades. An early diversification age of the tribe is inferred in the Western Mediterranean during late Oligocene. Colonization of the New World by Omphalodeae, followed by fast lineage differentiation, took place sometime in the Oligocene‐Miocene boundary, as already inferred for other angiosperm genera. In contrast, colonization of remote islands (New Zealand, Juan Fernández) occurred considerably later in the Miocene‐Pliocene boundary.

Key words: colonization, diversification, intercontinental disjunction, molecular dating, syndromes, Zealandia