J Syst Evol ›› 2019, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (6): 561-578.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12519

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Diversification of Hawaiian Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) under the influence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization

Joseph A. Kleinkopf1, Wade R. Roberts1, Warren L. Wagner2, and Eric H. Roalson1*   

  1. 1School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236, USA
    2Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, MRC‐166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20013-7012, USA
  • Received:2018-12-27 Accepted:2019-05-29 Published:2019-11-01


Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) is a genus of flowering plants with over 800 species distributed throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. On the Hawaiian Islands, 60 named species and over 89 putative hybrids exist, most of which are identified on the basis of morphology. Despite many previous studies on the Hawaiian Cyrtandra lineage, questions regarding the reconciliation of morphology and genetics remain, many of which can be attributed to the relatively young age and evidence of hybridization between species. We utilized targeted enrichment, high‐throughput sequencing, and modern phylogenomics tools to test 31 Hawaiian Cyrtandra samples (22 species, two putative hybrids, four species with two samples each, one species with four samples) and two outgroups for species relationships and hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Both concatenated and species‐tree methods were used to reconstruct species relationships, and network analyses were conducted to test for hybridization. We expected to see high levels of ILS and putative hybrids intermediate to their parent species. Phylogenies reconstructed from the concatenated and species‐tree methods were highly incongruent, most likely due to high levels of incomplete lineage sorting. Network analyses inferred gene flow within this lineage, but not always between taxa that we expected. Multiple hybridizations were inferred, but many were on deeper branches of the island lineages suggesting a long history of hybridization. We demonstrated the utility of high‐throughput sequencing and a phylogenomic approach using 569 loci to understanding species relationships and gene flow in the presence of ILS.

Key words: Cyrtandra,  gene flow, Gesneriaceae, Hawaiian Islands, hyb-seq, phylogenomics