J Syst Evol ›› 1975, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (2): 29-48.

• Research Articles •

### Triterpenoids from Panax Linn. and Their Relationship with Taxonomy and Geographical Distribution

Yunnan Institute of Botany

• Published:1975-04-18

Abstract: This article deals with the distribution of triterpenoids in Chinese: species of Panax. The results of investigation show that the tetracyclic triterpenoids of dammarane type are the main constituents in Ginseng (P. Ginseng C. A. Meyer) and Sanchii (P. notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen) and that pentacyelic triterpenoids of oleanane type are the main constituents in P. pseudo-ginseng Wall., P. zingiberensis C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng, P. japonicus C. A. Meyer and its variety (var. angustifolius, var. major, var. bipinnatifidus) and P. stipuleanatus H. T. Tsai et K. M. Feng. The fact that the Chinese people had found out herbs with such high therapeutic effects as Ginseng and Sanchii through long medical practices shows it to have been achieved not without modern scientific ground. Tetracyelic triterpenoids of dammarane type is one of the active constituent of Ginseng and Sanchii, while, on the contrary, the pentacyclic triterpenoids of oleanane type have yet inactive physiologic properties. ' Through the comparative study of triterpenoids constituents together with the taxonomy and the geographic distribution of various species of Chinese Panax, it shows that Panax as a whole may be divided into two main groups: the first group, having rather short erect rhizomes, fleshy carrotlike roots and larger seeds, is corresponding to those species with their main constituents as the tetracyclic triterpenoids of dammarane type and their areas in dispersal being often limited and disjunct. The second group, that possesses long creeping rhizomes, usually with no well developed fleshy roots and bearing smaller seeds, correlates to those species invariably with continual distribution and their main constituents are pentacyclic triterpenoids of oleanane type. Therefore, it is suggested that in comparing with the latter group, the former is perhaps more primitive, and Sanchi (P. notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen) may be the oldest member among living species of Panax. On the other land, it is found that in external morphology, P. pseudo-ginseng Wall. belongs to the former group, but its chemical constituents are nevertheless similar to the latter. On such account, it seems evident that P. pseudo-ginseng Wall. constitutes a transitional type between these two groups, and reveals there by some historical relationship of thesetwo groups. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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