J Syst Evol ›› 1979, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (3): 8-23.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Palynofloristical investigation on the late Cretaceous and Paleocene of China

Sun Xiang-Jun   

  1. (Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica)
  • Published:1979-08-18

Abstract: As late cretaceous and Paleocene was an important stage in the evolution of angiosperms, so studies on flora of this periiod are of great significance. In recent years many palynological data of late Cretaceous and Paleocene have been recorded from different parts of China, especially the Southeastern China. An attempt is made here to allow deductions regarding the problem of existence of some palynological provinces during this period in China. Three provinces may be divided as follows. I. The wet subtropical and warm-temperate palynofioristical province of northeastern China. During late Cretaceous, this palynoflora was marked by occurrence of Aquilapollenites, Mancieorpus, Fibrapollis and Wodehouseia. Aquilapollenites amplus, A. crassus, A. megaprojeetus, A. asper, A. affenatus A. alatus, Mancieorpus andaensis, FiburapaUis mirifieus and Wodehouseia oeulata ...... are noted. Besides these eharacteriestic elements, there are many species of Proteaeiites and some species of Beaupreaidites, Loranthacites, Quereoidites, Salixipollenites, Gothanipollis, Plicapollis, Utmoideipites, Cranwellia, Alnipollenites and Trieolporopollenites. Gymnosperms pollen comprise Abietineaepollenites, Pinuspollenites, Cedripites, Taxodiaceaepollenites and Araueariacites. Sehizaeoisporites are very rich in species and numbers. Polypodiaceoisporites, Osmundacidites and Cyathidites are rarely Maud. Paleocene palynoflora is characterized by scantiness or absence of Aquilapollenites and Wodehouseia. Paraalnipollenites eonfusus, P. orthoeostatus, BetulaepoUenites pli eoides and some species of Myricipites, Comptonia and Momipites are predominant. These pollen may be related to Betulaceae, Juglandaceae and Myricaseae. Taxodiaceaepollenites, Cedripites and Podoearpidites are commen, It reflects that during late Cretaceous the flora was wet and subtropical, but in Paleocene, it turned to be wet and warm-temperate. According to the abundanee of Aquilapollenites and Wodehouseia, this palynoflora may belong to the Eastern AsianWestern North American Paly-nofioristical Province. II. Arid subtropical palynofioristieal province of South China. During late-Cretaceous this palynofiora comprises Morinopollenites Wang & Zhao (M. normalis, M. minor, M. polyprojeetus, M. rhombiformis) and Janhangpollis Wang & Zhao (J. radiatus, J. arciformis, J. sayaxngensis, J. ringes, J. mikros). Besides this, species of Proteacidites, Beaupreaidites, Myoporumpollenites, Crassimarginpollenites, Cranwellia, Magnolipollis, Rutaceoipollenites, Ilexpollenites, Symplocospollenites, Nyssapollenites, Palmaepollenites and Chenopodipollis were recorded. Classopollis, Exessipollenites and Rugubivesieulites were abundant in this assemblage. Aquilapollenites is rarely recorded, except along the coast region of eastern China. In paleocene some species of Nanlingpollis Sun & He, Pentapollenites jiangsiensis, Tricolporopollenites rombicus and Sapotaceoidaepollenitess trieoloporatus are recorded, but Morinopollenites and Janhanpollis were unknown. Ulmoideipites, Ulmipollenites, Ephedripites and some verrucate spores (Pterisispora) were very abundant. According to the feature of the pouch assemblages, the flora of South China during that time was of arid subtropical in nature. It seems to be nothing to do with other palynofloristical provinces in the world. III. Arid subtropical palynofloristical province of Northwestern China. Palynofiora of this period has been recorded from a few localities throughout this area. Normapolles group (Atlantopollis, Pseudoatlantopollis, Chaonopollenites, BasopoUis and ExtratriporopoUenites), Proteacigites microverrucatus, Eehitriporites magnus and Triatriapollenites echinatus were present. Besides that, Beaupreaidites, Rutaceoipollenites, Lonicerapollis and Engelhardtioipollenits were also occurred. In gymnosperms Ephedripites and some disaccate pollen were abundant. The percentage of Normapolles is increasing from east to west, while Proteaeidites is decreasing. In Paleocene Nudopollis and Trudopollis of Normapolles group were present, while Proteacidites 8issappeared. The palynoflora of this province was of an arid and subtropical in nature, which is somewhat in connection with the European-Eastern American Palynofloristical Province by the presence of Normapolles.