J Syst Evol ›› 1979, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (3): 8-23.
• Research Articles •
As late cretaceous and Paleocene was an important stage in the evolution of
angiosperms, so studies on flora of this periiod are of great significance. In recent
years many palynological data of late Cretaceous and Paleocene have been recorded
from different parts of China, especially the Southeastern China. An attempt is made
here to allow deductions regarding the problem of existence of some palynological
provinces during this period in China. Three provinces may be divided as follows.
I. The wet subtropical and warm-temperate palynofioristical province of northeastern China. During late Cretaceous, this palynoflora was marked by occurrence
of Aquilapollenites, Mancieorpus, Fibrapollis and Wodehouseia. Aquilapollenites amplus,
A. crassus, A. megaprojeetus, A. asper, A. affenatus A. alatus, Mancieorpus andaensis,
FiburapaUis mirifieus and Wodehouseia oeulata ...... are noted.
Besides these eharacteriestic elements, there are many species of Proteaeiites and
some species of Beaupreaidites, Loranthacites, Quereoidites, Salixipollenites, Gothanipollis, Plicapollis, Utmoideipites, Cranwellia, Alnipollenites and Trieolporopollenites. Gymnosperms pollen comprise Abietineaepollenites, Pinuspollenites, Cedripites, Taxodiaceaepollenites and Araueariacites. Sehizaeoisporites are very rich in species and numbers.
Polypodiaceoisporites, Osmundacidites and Cyathidites are rarely Maud.
Paleocene palynoflora is characterized by scantiness or absence of Aquilapollenites
and Wodehouseia. Paraalnipollenites eonfusus, P. orthoeostatus, BetulaepoUenites pli
eoides and some species of Myricipites, Comptonia and Momipites are predominant.
These pollen may be related to Betulaceae, Juglandaceae and Myricaseae. Taxodiaceaepollenites, Cedripites and Podoearpidites are commen,
It reflects that during late Cretaceous the flora was wet and subtropical, but in
Paleocene, it turned to be wet and warm-temperate. According to the abundanee of
Aquilapollenites and Wodehouseia, this palynoflora may belong to the Eastern AsianWestern North American Paly-nofioristical Province.
II. Arid subtropical palynofioristieal province of South China.
During late-Cretaceous this palynofiora comprises Morinopollenites Wang & Zhao
(M. normalis, M. minor, M. polyprojeetus, M. rhombiformis) and Janhangpollis Wang
& Zhao (J. radiatus, J. arciformis, J. sayaxngensis, J. ringes, J. mikros). Besides this,
species of Proteacidites, Beaupreaidites, Myoporumpollenites, Crassimarginpollenites,
Cranwellia, Magnolipollis, Rutaceoipollenites, Ilexpollenites, Symplocospollenites, Nyssapollenites, Palmaepollenites and Chenopodipollis were recorded. Classopollis, Exessipollenites and Rugubivesieulites were abundant in this assemblage. Aquilapollenites is
rarely recorded, except along the coast region of eastern China.
In paleocene some species of Nanlingpollis Sun & He, Pentapollenites jiangsiensis,
Tricolporopollenites rombicus and Sapotaceoidaepollenitess trieoloporatus are recorded,
but Morinopollenites and Janhanpollis were unknown. Ulmoideipites, Ulmipollenites,
Ephedripites and some verrucate spores (Pterisispora) were very abundant. According
to the feature of the pouch assemblages, the flora of South China during that time was
of arid subtropical in nature. It seems to be nothing to do with other palynofloristical
provinces in the world.
III. Arid subtropical palynofloristical province of Northwestern China.
Palynofiora of this period has been recorded from a few localities throughout this
Normapolles group (Atlantopollis, Pseudoatlantopollis, Chaonopollenites, BasopoUis
and ExtratriporopoUenites), Proteacigites microverrucatus, Eehitriporites magnus and
Triatriapollenites echinatus were present. Besides that, Beaupreaidites, Rutaceoipollenites, Lonicerapollis and Engelhardtioipollenits were also occurred. In gymnosperms Ephedripites and some disaccate pollen were abundant. The percentage of
Normapolles is increasing from east to west, while Proteaeidites is decreasing.
In Paleocene Nudopollis and Trudopollis of Normapolles group were present, while
The palynoflora of this province was of an arid and subtropical in nature, which
is somewhat in connection with the European-Eastern American Palynofloristical Province by the presence of Normapolles.
Sun Xiang-Jun. Palynofloristical investigation on the late Cretaceous and Paleocene of China[J]. J Syst Evol, 1979, 17(3): 8-23.
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