J Syst Evol ›› 1990, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 345-355.

• Research Articles •

### The Geographical Distribution and the System of Aristolochiaceae

Ma Jin‐Shuang

• Published:1990-09-10

Abstract: The geographical distribution, the center of distribution and differentiation of Aristolochiaceae, its subdivision and evolutionary trends are discussed in this paper. I. The systematic positions, the distribution patterns and the relationships among six genera in the family Aristolochiaceae, i.e. Saruma, Asarum, Thottea, Holostylis, Aristolochia and Euglypha, are discussed, and according to the floristic analysis two patterns and five subpatterns of distribution of the six genera in the family are recognized. They are: 1) Temperate pattern: a. Eastern Asia (China): Saruma; b. North Temperate (disjunct in Europe, E. Asia and N. America): Asarum. 2) Tropical pattern: c. Tropical Asia: Thottea; d. Tropical America: Holostylis, Euglypha; e. Pantropic: Aristolochia. 2. The floristic analysis of species in the family shows that the region, the richest both in genera, species and endemic species, as Takhtajan's (1969) work pointed out, is East Asia (see Table 1); and the species in the Old World, especially in East Asia, are primitive elements. Four genera and 91 species of this family occur in China, and especially more primitive elements are found from the Hengduan Mountains to South China, as C. Y. Wu's (1979) work mentioned (see Table 2). 3. The primary center of the distribution and differentiation of this family is East Asia (especially in the region from the Hengduan Mountains to C. and S. China), since four genera and 214 species are found in Asia, and three genera and 73 species of the family, including the most primitive genus Saruma and the more primitive genus Asarum occur in the region from the Hengduan Mountains to C. and S. China. The secondary center of distribution and differentiation is Tropical America, because species found there are only relatively advanced ones. For this reason this family should be considered as a mainly tropical family rather than a typically tropical one, though 80 percent of the total species of the family are now distributed in the tropics. 4. The evolutionary trends in the family are: the perianth from actinomorphic to zygomorphic, from free to united, from cup-like to tubular; stamens from indefinite to definite, from free to united with pistil in the gynostemium; and the fruit from follicular capsule to capsule. Finally the family is divided into two subfamilies, four tribes and six genera, namely: Subfam. 1. Asaroideae Gen. 3. Thottea Rottb. Trib. 1. Sarumeae Schmidt Subfam. 2. Aristolochioideae Gen. 1. Saruma Oliv. Trib. 4. Aristolochieae Trib. 2. Asareae Gen. 4. Holostylis Duch. Gen. 2. Asarum Linn. Gen. 5. Aristolochia Linn. Trib. 3. Bragantieae Klotz. Gen. 6. Euglypha Chod. ＆ Hassl. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.