J Syst Evol ›› 1998, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 111-118.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

The Development of Gynoecium after Anthesis and Fertilization in Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae)

LIU Lin-De, WANG Zhong-Li, TIAN Guo-Wei, SHEN Jia-Heng   

  • Published:1998-03-10

Abstract: The development status of gynoecia in Eleutherococcus senticosus flowers is different from that in ordinary plants. Female gametophytes of E. senticosus have not become mature until the 6th day after anthesis. On the 6th day, 82.25% of embryo sacs in female plants, and 67.25% of those in hermaphroditic plants become mature, while the rest are sterile, immature or degenerated with no fertilized embryo sacs observed. At the same time, all embryo sacs degenerated and flowers withered in male plants. On the 7th day, a few embryo sacs in female and hermaphroditic plants start being fertilized. Accompanying the differentiation of embryo sacs, styles of female and hermaphroditic flowers start to expand and their nectaries become mature gradually. After the 4th or 6th day of anthesis, stigmatic papillae become conspicious and stigmata become white and open. In the meantime, the stigmata become receptive and the nectaries get active or reactive. By the 9th or 10th day, 40~65 % of embryo sacs in female plants and 25~41% of those in hermaphroditic plants have been fertilized. The whole process of fertilization in E. senticosus was observed. About 2 or 3 days after pollination, the two sperm nuclei start to fuse with the egg and the secondary nucleus. The fertilization of E. senticosus belongs to the premitotic type of syngamy. The essential process of the fusion of male and female nuclei during syngamy may be generalized as follows: (1) the contacting of male nucleus with the female one; (2) the fusion of nuclear membranes between the male and female nuclei; (3) the despiralization of male spireme and the appearance of male nucleolus inside the fertilized female nucleus; (4) the dispersion of male chromatin and the mergence with the female chromatin, which is the sign of completion of the fusion of the two nuclei. In addition, degeneration types of mature embryo sacs were observed. And typical polyspermy and a series of cases in which extra sperms enter the em-bryo sac are recorded.

Key words: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Gynoecium development status, Mature embryo