J Syst Evol ›› 1990, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 223-227.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Investigation on Embryology of Anemarrhena asphodeloides

Chen Zu-Keng, Wang Fu-Hsiung, Li Zhi-Li   

  • Published:1990-05-10

Abstract: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge is the only species of Anemarrhena in Liliaceae, which possesses three stamens. The flowers in this species have following features: (1) Crystalliferous cells are present in the perianth and the filament. (2) Epidermal cells of filaments and the inner perianth appears verruciform. (3) In longitudinal section, a number of the multicellular hairs were found in the apex of the inner perianth. The above characteristics of Anemarrhena are possibly important and differ from those of the other genera in Liliaceae. The main aim of the present paper is to deal with the female gametophyte and embryogenesis in Anemarrhena. The development of embryo sac is similar to that of Ornithogalum (Tilton et al., 1981), belonging to the Polygonum type, but there is a short embryo sac haustorium at the antipodal end. Before fertilization the two polar muclei fuse into a secondary nucleus. The filiform apparatus was found in the synergid. The early development of proembryo in Anemarrhena is similar to that of Najas (Hu, 1982). After fertilization the zygote has a short stage of dormancy. When the endosperm has 12-16 free nuclei, the first division of the zygote takes place, forming an apical cell and a basal cell. Then the apical cell undergoes transversal divisions 2 or 3 times, forming a line of three to four cells. The basal cell usually does not further divide. The endosperm formation in Anemarrhena is the Helobial type. The small chalazal chamber is usually ephemeral and 2-4-nucleate, while the large micropylar one may be a multi-nucleate before wall formation.

Key words: Anemarrhena asphodeloides, embryogenesis, embryo sac, endosperm, Pollen