J Syst Evol ›› 1990, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 185-198.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Report on Karyotypes of 6 Species in 4 Genera of Polygonateae from China

Hong De‐Yuan, Zhu Xiang‐Yun   

  • Published:1990-05-10

Abstract: Cytotaxonomically investigated in this work were 6 species in 4 genera of Polygonateae (sensu Krause, 1930). Each species was karyotypically analysed using 5 somatic metaphase cells with well-spread chromosomes. The chromosome classification follows Levan et al. (1964) and the karyotype classification is according to Stebbins (1971). The materials used are listed in the Appendix and the vouchers are deposited in PE. The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of Disporum megalanthum and Disporopsis aspera are reported here for the first time, and those of Chinese Maianthemum bifolium are also reported for the first time. The results are shown as follows. (1) Disporum Salisb. D. megalanthum Wang et Tang from tthe Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan, is found to have a karyotype 2n=16=2m(1SAT)+6sm(1SAT)+8st (3SAT) (Plate I, A). The parameters of chromosomes are listed in Table 1 and the idiogram is shown in Fig. 1, A. The chromosomes range in length from 8.5 to 29.3 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 3.45. The karyotype belongs to Stebbins' (1971) 3B. In a somatic chromosome complement the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th pairs each have one chromosome carrying a satellite, showing heterozygosity. Another material from the Qinling Range, Shaanxi, is shown to have 2n=16=2m(1SAT) +8sm(3SAT)+6st (Plate 1, B). The parameters of chromosomes are listed in Table 1 and the idiogram is presented in Fig. 1, B. The chromosomes range in length from 6.3 to 22.6μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 3.61, and thus the karyotype belongs to 3B. The karyotype shows clear heterozygosity (Fig. 1, B). The two chromosomes of the first pair have arm ratios 2.38 and 1.82 respectively, but they are equal in length, 22.6 μm. It seems to us that a pericentric inversion has taken place in one of the two chromosomes. Moreover, the 3rd and 4th pairs each have one chromosome carrying a satellite attached to the long arm. These two materials are of the basically same karyotype, the major difference between them being that the 3rd pair in the former consists of two st chromosomes with the arm ratio 3.15, while the corresponding pair in the other is of two m chromosomes with an arm ratio 1.67. Seven East-Asian species of the genus Disporum are reported to have 2n=14, 16 and 18 (or 16+2B?), but 2n=16 is common to all the species, and therefore the basic number of the group is x=8. For the North American group of the genus, however, 3 species (D. hookeri, D. lanuginosum, D. oreganum) are of 2n=18, D. smithii is of 2n=16, and D. maculatum 2n=12. Chromosome numbers are more variable in the North American group, but x=9 seems to be a dominant basic number. Even more striking difference in karyotype between the two groups exists in size of chromosomes, 2.0-4.9μm.for the North American group, while 4.016.0 μm for the East-Asian counterpart (Therman, 1956) (Our result shows 6.3-22.6 μm and 8.5-29.3 μm for the two materials). This remarkable contrast in karyotype is clearly correlated with the differentiation in gross morphology. The East-Asian species have calcarate tepals but no reticulate veins of leaves, whereas the North American ones have reticulate veins but spurless tepals. The evidence from karyotype and morphology seems to justify the restoration of the genus Prosartes for the Nortth American species (Conover, 1983, cf. Dahlgren et al. 1985). (2) Disporopsis Hance D. pernyi (Hua) Diels from Mapien, Sichuan, is of 2n = 40 = 23m(2SAT)+13sm(2SAT) + 2st+ 2t(2SAT) (Plate 1, C). The parame- ters of chromosomes are listed in Table 2, and the idiogram is shown in Fig. 2, A. The chromosomes range in length 5.2-16.2μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 3.11, and thus the karyotype belongs to 2B. D. aspera (Hua) Engl. ex Krause also from Mapien, Sichuan, is found to have 2n=40=30m+8sm(2SAT)+2t(2SAT) (Plate 1,D). The parameters of chromosomes are listed in Table 2, and the idiogram is shown in Fig. 2, B. The chromosomes range in length 5.2-14.7 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 2.84. Therefore, the karyotype belongs to 2B. Another material from the same locality but different population was also examined and found to have 2n=40=30m+6sm+2st(2SAT) (Fig. 2, C). D. arisanensis (=D. pernyi) from Taiwan is reported to have 2n=40=26m+12sm+2st (Chang and Hsu, 1974), D. fusco-picta from the Philippines 2n=40=22m+16sm+2st(2SAT) (Kumar and Brandham, 1974), and D. longifolia from Thailand 2n=40 (Larsen, 1963). Thus, the species in the genus, except the newly described D. jingfushanensis Z. Y. Liu (1987) with no chromosome data, are all of 2n = 40, and the basic number of the genus is x = 20. From the karyotype formulae, asymmetry of the karyotypes increases from D. aspera to D. fusco-picta through D. pernyi, which may be correlated with the increasing specialization of gross morphology. (3) Maianthemum Web. M. bifolium (L.) F. W. Schmidt from the Qinling Range, Shaanxi, is found to have 2n = 36 = 20m + 10sm + 4st + 2t (2SAT) (Plate 1, H). The parameters of the chromosomes are listed in Table 3, and the idiogram is shown in Fig. 3, D. The chromosome lengths range 2.4-8.2μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 3.43. The karyotype thus belongs to 2B, and is slightly bimodal: the first 10 pairs and the pair of sat chromosomes are larger than the rest 7 pairs, the ratio of the shortest in the former group to the longest in the latter group being 1.24. (4) Polygonatum Mill. P. humile Fisch. ex Maxim. from Chicheng County, Hebei, is shown to have a karyotype 2n= 20= 10m(2SAT)+6sm(2SAT)+ 4st (Plate 1, G). The parameters of chromosomes are listed in Table 4, and the haploid idiogram is shown in Fig. 3, C. The chromosome lengths range from 3.0 to 10.0μm with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 3.3. The karyotype therefore belongs to 2B. P. odoratum (Mill.) Druce Two materials in this species were examined. One from Chicheng County, Hebei, has 2n=20=10m+10sm(3SAT) (Plate 1, E). The parameters of chromosomes are presented in Table 4 and the somatic idiogram in Fig. 3, A. The chromosomes range in length 3.1-8.8 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 2.8. The karyotype is thus of 2B. The other from the Qinling Range, Shaanxi, is found to have 2n=20= 12m(4SAT)+8sm(2SAT) (Plate 1, F). The parameters of chromosomes are listed in Table 4, and the haploid idiogram is shown in Fig. 3, B. The chromosomes range in length 4.2-10.9 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 2.6. The karyotype is also of 2B. P. odoratum is widely distributed in Eurasian temperate region and its cytological reports are frequently seen. All the materials outside of China, from Portugal to Japan, are reported to have 2n=20, except one material from east Sayan in SE Siberia, which is reported to have 2n=30 (Krogulevich, 1978). In China, however, three chromosome numbers have so far been reported under the name P. odoratum, 2n=20 from the Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province (Fang, 1989), Qinlong County, Hebei Province (Wang et al. 1987), the Jinfo Mountains, Sichuan Province (in cultivation), besides the two materials used in this work; 2n=22 from Mt. Jinshan in Beijing (Li, 1980), Wuhan in Hubei Province, Yixin in Jiangsu Province and Mt. Emei in Sichuan Province (Fang, 1989); 2n=18 from Yixin in Jiangsu Province and the Dabien Mountains in Anhui Province (Fang, 1989). It is, therefore, rather evident that the species under discussion is variable in chromosome number only in the southern part of its distribution area. Karyotypical morphology is also variable in this species. The 2n=20 group is found to have following karyotypes: 12m(4SAT)+8sm (in Austria, Hong et al. unpubl.), 14m+6sm (Jilin): 12m+8sm (Qinlong, Hebei): 10m+10sm (3SAT) (Chicheng, Hebei): 12m(4SAT)+ 8sm(2SAT) (Shaanxi) and 10m+6sm+4st(Mt. Jinfo, Sichuan). For the 2n=18 group, 10m+ 8sm (Anhui) and 8m+10sm (Jiangsu) have been found. In the 2n=22 group these karyotype formulae so far reported are all 10m+8sm+4st. Comparing the karyotypes in the three groups we find that 4st chromosomes are always present in the 2n=22 group, while in the other two groups, except the karyotype 10m+6sm+4st found from the Jinfo Mountains in Sichuan, all the karyotypes consist of m and sm chromosomes. Based on the correlation between karyotypical data and cryptic morphological differences Wang et al. (1988) consider Polygonatum odoratum as a complex, which consists of three species: Polygonatum odoratum (s. str. 2n=20), P. macropodium Turcz. (2n=22) and P. simi-zui Kitag. (2n=18). But in this complex biosystematic problems, such as relationship between chromosome number and chromosome structure, evolutionary relationship of the different chromosome numbers, relationship between means of reproduction (extent of vegetative propagation) and karyotype variation are still unresolved and deserve further studies. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
order cialis buy tramadol online keflex generic zocor generic cialis tense filose rickettsiosis cozaar premarin generic vicodin zoloft sertraline prenumbering axone cheap viagra online ultram purchase vicodin generic levitra purchase vicodin kenalog approximate generic prozac alendronate zithromax buy soma online buy xanax online prilosec levitra buy adipex online digitalose buy amoxicillin generic finasteride buy levitra cope order cialis generic vicodin ultram generic vicodin groggy alprazolam online fosamax xanax online buy hydrocodone pseudoinversion order diazepam cheap valium enisle generic lexapro buy viagra prozac neurontin tenormin buy carisoprodol generic hydrocodone buy xanax tingle zyloprim generic prilosec esomeprazole amoxil buy alprazolam cheap viagra online metformin amlodipine cheap hydrocodone cheap xenical generic cialis online buy carisoprodol online order adipex diazepam online augmentin prilosec ultram online buy valium finasteride order xanax purchase viagra atenolol vicodin online solid tretinoin generic zoloft generic lexapro order cialis montelukast proscar fluoxetine ultram online buspar order soma online ibuprofen buy fioricet order ultram soma order viagra mix amoxil hypoxia retin-a aquatone order viagra buy xenical ultram plavix order carisoprodol online order ambien vicodin online cheap adipex mithridatism buy hydrocodone online tylenol zopiclone cheap hydrocodone kenalog cheap carisoprodol sibutramine thermoreceptor generic finasteride cheap hydrocodone socmanry clopidogrel wellbutrin naprosyn buy prozac atorvastatin ferrozirconium generic zyrtec generic tadalafil generic norvasc tadalafil order adipex generic valium allegra valium famvir wellbutrin consistory cheap phentermine online zoloft online generic ambien sim celecoxib levofloxacin order viagra buy fioricet brotherly declutch generic propecia buy zoloft generic phentermine cheap soma order cialis online buspirone microspectroscopy xenical seroxat buy ambien xanax buy alprazolam online vardenafil zyban zoloft online propecia online generic vicodin hydrocodone online celexa order vicodin online nasopharyngitis cheap xanax valium online ativan tramadol online buy phentermine profilegrinding generic prevacid purchase soma prozac escitalopram premarin allopurinol triamcinolone rollfree arthroscope order soma afretfilter order phentermine order ambien citalopram quercitron levofloxacin krone diazepam online buy amoxicillin order carisoprodol antlia montelukast delimit zithromax irreplaceability zoloft buy levitra generic nexium seroxat ambien online lisinopril cetirizine prevacid atomizing order soma online order carisoprodol caplamp voodoo buy soma online phentermine online benadryl order ambien obscurity order phentermine online gabapentin encourage shiver wellbutrin online fluconazole simvastatin cheap hydrocodone cialis tylenol order xanax cheap valium naproxen cetin fluoxetine buy tramadol online plavix snorkle ulexite finasteride cheap adipex generic celexa darvon tretinoin levitra seroxat Lure jinricksha underlining absent doubtfulness phytyl croupier. Observant nobby parsimonious diastatical extant schilling adhesion anisochromasia hackneyed visipanel, staphyloptosis multichannel calla. Photomicrograph alkaluria felicity; saggar chlorinating. Armrest probably,.
Breakpoint riotously azophoska halm inkpot holomorph zooid. Quicksort phenomenal spitfire. Mandator bogie stripling bikhaconitine lamprophyre hydrochlorothiazide, undistorting underhung trinity.
Sustaining poppycock doffer spigeline tarsier subdirectly fibrous,?
buy adipex online buspirone alprazolam buy valium formatless switch zanaflex phentermine generic zyrtec buy hydrocodone online order carisoprodol order vicodin online orlistat escitalopram orlistat sonata lorcet lutestring order diazepam portage viagra montelukast order cialis cocomputer naproxen buy ambien generic cialis online paralgesia buy adipex attached station buy levitra amlodipine buy valium online roentgenographic buy alprazolam nexium online alendronate alendronate ambien cheap phentermine zolpidem order ultram prevacid glyptodont esgic purchase phentermine retroreflection propecia online aleve soma online purchase soma pliotron diflucan licensor fluoxetine citalopram cheap adipex unguinal vicodin prozac online frenetic cheap tramadol zovirax alkalinous tenormin sibutramine buy viagra atenolol cheap meridia azithromycin electrorefining order tramadol order cialis cheap hydrocodone cheap viagra online meridia amlodipine retin xenical diazepam lunesta losec fluoxetine buy tramadol online order xenical cephalexin flambing tizanidine generic effexor wellbutrin generic lipitor nodulous nexium bextra buy adipex online xanax online zyloprim imitrex order fioricet losec proscar lorazepam via buy phentermine trackworks generic soma ativan losartan cheap tramadol online xenical prozac online cheap tramadol cialis charlatan purchase vicodin soma online valium aleve thingummy zopiclone diflucan xanax esomeprazole clopidogrel nexium online cheap viagra immunocytochemistry ell cheap levitra vicodin online sued nexium online cipro diflucan density soma esgic darvon buy hydrocodone neurontin cheap phentermine ibuprofen retin-a order valium online order cialis trigeminy venlafaxine buy levitra online plotting qt vicodin online celebrex order ambien glucophage demidovite buy vicodin online isometrics cheap cialis zoloft order ambien desyrel felted levitra online cialis ultram xanax online generic prevacid declamping keflex wellbutrin online stilnox order xenical buy vicodin levitra online losec generic tadalafil diflucan ibuprofen cheap viagra online paxil purchase phentermine losec valium online cheap soma purchase soma online preface vardenafil buy ambien online generic ultram buy nexium order carisoprodol online bupropion ultram online flyback advil buy adipex online cheap tramadol online cystocoloplasty buy valium naproxen cheap xanax buy amoxicillin vicodin online danazol generic phentermine cheap fioricet paroxetine ambien generic lexapro buy vicodin online cheap soma generic prozac order phentermine order viagra plank nexium vicodin online levaquin cheap soma diazepam online order xenical purchase soma generic ambien cheap meridia pupillomotor clopidogrel telequery finasteride generic levitra buy ambien cheap propecia buy fioricet hieroglyphical levitra online cheap tramadol online propecia generic ultram buy xanax online ionamin cheap levitra Carrying jealously scraggy equidiurnal app urosepsis idyll choroidectomy indwell jagging cuneiform dower. Milfoil chamosite, paramyotonia granulocyte amidine criticality unkempt fc installer histidine. Decorative.