Table of Contents
  • Volume 46 Issue 1

      Research Articles
    • Ying BAO, Song GE
      2008, 46 (1): 3–12
      The genus Oryza belongs to the tribe Oryzeae, subfamily Oryzoideae of the grass family Poaceae, consisting of more than 20 species. Among the species, about half are polyploids. These polyploids include BC, CD, HJ and HK genomic constitutions and are distributed in Asia, Oceania, Africa and Latin America. Because of its economic and theoretic significance, Oryza has attracted enormous attentions from scientists worldwide. Cor-respondingly, many research data are accumulated for the polyploid members in the genus. In this paper, we have reviewed the history of Oryza, especially the study of the polyploids. Based on our recent molecular studies on the origin and phylogeny of Oryza species, we summarized the current status of the investigations on the classifica-tion and phylogeny of the polyploid species. In addition, we discussed the perplexity and future direction of the studies on the Oryza polyploids.
    • Feng-Ying,WANG, Xun GONG, Chi-Ming HU, Gang HAO
      2008, 46 (1): 13–22
      The Hengduan Mountains (HM) and adjacent regions have been suggested as the important refugia of the temperate plants during the glacial stages. However, it remains unknown how the HM endemic species can respond to the climatic oscillations. In this study, we examined the chloroplast trnL-trnF and rps16 sequence variation of Primula secundiflora, a relatively common alpine perennial endemic to this region. Sequence data were obtained from 109 individuals of 11 populations covering the entire distribution range of the species. A total of 15 haplotypes were recovered and only one of them is commonly shared by three populations while the others are respectively fixed in the single population. The total diversity (HT=0.966) is high while the within-population diversity (HS=0.178) is low. Despite the high uniformity of the intraspecific morphology, an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high level of genetic differentiation (97.65%) among populations. The higher NST (0.982) than GST (0.816) (P<0.05) suggested a distinctly phylogeographical pattern. Phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes identified four major clusters of the recovered haplotypes: three clades in the north, and the other one in the south. The isolated distribution of clades suggested multiple refugia of this species during the glacial stages. We failed to detect the interglacial or postglacial range expansion of this species as revealed for the other temper-ate plants. However, the low intra-population diversity suggested that most of the populations should have ex-perienced the in situ shrink-expansion cycles during the climatic oscillations. This inference was further supported by the nested clade analysis, which indicated that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance and allopatric fragmentation were likely the major processes that shaped the present-day spatial distribution of haplotypes in this species. Such a special phylogeographic pattern may have resulted from a combination of both climatic oscillation and complex topology of HM.
    • Zhi-Yan DU, Yin-Zheng WANG
      2008, 46 (1): 23–31
      We isolated and characterized two CYC-like genes from Oreocharis benthamii Clark (Gesneriaceae) in order to investigate their expression patterns. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the two CYC-like genes, ObCYC1 and ObCYC2, belong to GCYC1 and GCYC2 clades in Gesneriaceae, respectively. Gene-specific RT-PCR results show that they have different spatio-temporal expression patterns. ObCYC1 is mainly expressed in the adaxial region of developing flowers as CYC is in Antirrhinum majus. The expression pattern of ObCYC1 demonstrates its basic function of controlling the adaxial floral organ development that is similar to that of CYC in Antirrhinum, which is in correlation with their conserved function domains, i.e. TCP and R domains. However, ObCYC1 is likely to repress the growth of both the adaxial petals and adaxial staminode. In addition, the weakened expression of ObCYC1 near flowering is correlated with the flower morphology of Oreocharis which is characteristic of weak zygomorphy. ObCYC2 exhibits a remarkable differentiation in protein sequence of TCP and R domain in comparison with those of ObCYC1 and CYC. Correlatively, ObCYC2 is inactive in floral tissue. This unique feature of ObCYC2 needs to be investigated by further comparative study both in expression and function in order to understand its basic function and evolutionary pathway in Gesneriaceae and related families.
    • Li-Hua MENG, Hui-Ling YANG, Gui-Li WU, Yu-Jin WANG
      2008, 46 (1): 32–40
      The topological effect of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the Quaternary climatic oscillation must have important effects on spatial distribution and genetic structure of organisms distributed there. At the same time, the ecological niches provided by the uplifts of the plateau and the following Quaternary climatic changes may have promoted morphological differentiation and speciation of plants occurring there. The plateau endemic Hippophae neurocarpa (Elaeagnaceae) is a dominant shrub species along the streams or rivers and it also occurs in the semi-arid ecosystem. This species is recognized as two separate subspecies, i.e. ssp. neurocarpa and ssp. stellatopilosa, mainly according to the appendages on leaves and different habitat preferences. The former is characteristic of scale-like appendages on the leaves and distributed in the drier and colder habitats while the latter has stellate hairs with a preference of occurring in the wetter and warmer habitats. It is interesting to know whether the morphological sub-speciation of H. neurocarpa is correlated with the intra-specific chloroplast phylogeny. In addition, this species also provide a good proxy to test the hypothesis that a few cold- or dry-tolerating species survive in the high altitude region of the plateau during the Quaternary glacial stages. In this study, we examined chloroplast trnL-F sequence variation from both subspecies of H. neurocarpa. The chloroplast genome was found to be maternally inherited in Hippophae and the intraspecific genealogy may reflect the maternal lineage sorting between both subspecies. A total of eight haplotypes were recovered through sequencing 70 individuals from 14 populations. One was shared by both subspecies, and four and three were only found in ssp. neurocarpa and ssp. stellatopilosa respectively. These findings suggested that two subspecies did not show genealogical concordance with morphological differentiation in this fragment. The constructed nested cladogram classified eight haplotypes into three lineages: one consisted of endemic haplotypes of ssp. neurocarpa and the other two included haplotypes from both subspecies with those of ssp. neurocarpa at the tip positions. In addition, the unique haplotypes recov-ered in the high altitude suggested that this species might have survived in these arid habitats. The contiguous range expansion was detected from these different refugia.
    • Ya-Qiong CHEN, Min DENG, Zhe-Kun ZHOU
      2008, 46 (1): 41–52
      The cupule is the most distinguishable character of the Fagaceae and has been the focus of much research. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the origin, evolution and morphological features of the cupule. These were based on different types of evidence, but here we used molecular phylogenetic and fossil evidence. Our results supported the view that cupule valves originated from the outermost branches of the dichasium, and that cupules of the Fagaceae were distinct from other cupule-like organs with perianth origins in Fagales. There were three models of cupule evolution, each characterized by distinct evolutionary tendencies, single, dual and multi-directional respectively. Based on these models, we reconstructed the cupule's evolution using the consen-sus of four recent molecular phylogenies from different DNA fragments. Our results indicated that cupules had a monophyletic origin and that the Fagus cupule, with four cupule valves enclosing two triangular acorns, repre-sented the ancestral type, the Trigonobalanus cupule was the inferior-ancestral type, and the Chrysolepis cupule which possesses inner valves, shared a common ancestor with other roundish cupules. Our conclusions are also unequivocally supported by fossil evidence, with affinity of extant homologous cupule. The consensus from four molecular phylogenetic hypotheses along with the age of fossil cupules that are similar to extant Fagaceae taxa indicate that the cupule evolved in multi-directions, and that the small triangular, narrow winged fruits surrounded by a dehiscent cupule was plesiomorphy, and that a bigger roundish fruit surrounded by an indehiscent cupule was apomorphy. All these results provide the new evidence to explore evolution and phylogeny of Fagaceae. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Wei SUN, Zhong-Ze ZHOU, Ming-Zhen LIU, He-Wen WAN, Xiang DONG
      2008, 46 (1): 53–59
      Gross morphology, fruit anatomy, tepal venation, pollen morphology, chromosome number and ITS sequence of Pteroxygonum Damm. & Diels as well as other related genera (Polygonum, Fallopia, Reynoutria, Fagopyrum, and Antenoron) have been investigated to evaluate the generic status of Pteroxygonum. Pt. giraldii Damm. & Diels has three sharp horns at the base of fruit, which is distinctive among all the genera investigated. Upon observation of fruits under a light microscope (LM), the exocarp of Pt. giraldii is usually thickened and delimited by the rectangular cells with some sporadic undulating lumen, while that of Fagopyrum is thin-walled and isodiametric to rectangular in the cell shape. Analysis of tepal venation was performed under a stereomicroscope, and two types of tepal venation were found in Fagopyrum and Pteroxygonum. The type I is trifid, observed in Pt. giraldii, F. esculentum Moench, F. dibotrys (D. Don) Hara and F. tataricum (L.) Gaertn. The type II, found in F. caudatum (Sam.) A. J. Li, F. urophyllum (Bur. & Franch.) H. Gross and F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Damm. ex Diels, has the main vein extending from tepal base with some secondary veins. Evidence from tepal venation supports the previous classification in which Fagopyrum can be divided into a large-achene group and a small-achene group. Pollen morphology was investigated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The exine ornamentation of Pt. giraldii was finely reticulate with lumina diameter wider than muri width. The exine ornamentation in all the examined Fagopyrum species is, however, prominently sunken punctuate. The phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) ITS sequences in Pteroxygonum and related genera indicated that all the species form a well-supported monophyletic group with two clades. One includes Polygonum sect. Avicularia Meisn., genus Fallopia and genus Reynoutria, and the other consists of other sections of Polygonum, genus Fagopyrum and Pteroxygonum. The latter clade can be divided into two subclades. Fagopyrum species compose the first one, while Pteroxygonum giraldii, species of Polygonum (except sect. Avicularia) and Antenoron form the second one. In consideration of the above evidence, we conclude that Pteroxygonum is an independent genus in tribe Persicarieae, and should not be merged into the genus Fagopyrum.
    • Min CAI, Hua ZHU, Hong WANG
      2008, 46 (1): 60–70
      Pollen morphology of 16 Asian species including two subspecies and one variety of the genus Lasianthus and five species from five related genera was examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Lasianthus Jack is eurypalynous. The pollen grains are small to medium in size and spheroidal or subprolate in shape, with a few being prolate. Pollen morphology is remarkably diverse, particularly in aperture and exine ornamentation. The apertures are usually (3-)4-(-5)-zonoaperturate, being porate and pororate. The number of apertures varies from three to five, with the majority of species being 3-4 zonoaperturate. The exine is usually perforate, finely reticulate or coarsely reticulate. Pollen data appear to be morphologically informative and useful for distinguishing among species of Lasianthus, and for elucidating the relationships among some species.
    • Huan-Fang LIU, Yun-Fei DENG, Jing-Ping LIAO
      2008, 46 (1): 71–79
      Floral organogenesis of three species of the genus Jatropha L. of the family Euphorbiaceae, viz., J. curcas L., J. podagrica Hook. and J. gossypifolia L., was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first sepal primordium is initiated in non-median abaxial position and the second one in median adaxial position. Five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence on the periphery of the floral apex and are initiated anticlockwise or clockwise in different floral buds of the same species. Five petal primordia initiate simultaneously. There are dicyclic stamens in male flowers with the outer whorl of stamens opposite to the petals (obdiplostemony) and inner whorl opposite to the sepals. Two types of stamen development exist in the genus. In J. curcas, belonging to subgen. Curcas, five stamen primordia of the outer whorl arise simultaneously at first and then five of the inner whorl initiate simultaneously. In J. podagrica and J. gossypifolia, belonging to subgen. Jatropha, eight to nine stamen primordia of the two whorls arise simultaneously. In the female flowers, three carpel primordia appear simultane-ously. The flowers of these three species are unisexual. In the female flowers, the ovary bulges and the stamens degenerate, whereas in the male flowers, the stamens grow normally but the ovary is absent. The division of the genus with subgenera is supported by the stamen development.
    • Arunrat CHAVEERACH, Runglawan SUDMOON, Tawatchai TANEE, Piya MOKKAMUL, Nison SATTAYASAI, Jintana SATTAYASAI
      2008, 46 (1): 80–88
      Two new species of Curcuma, C. sattayasaii A. Chaveerach & R. Sudmoon and C. zedoaroides A. Chaveerach & T. Tanee with rhizomes traditionally used for many decades as cobra-bite antidotes are described and illustrated. Curcuma sattayasaii is similar to C. longa L., but differs in rhizome horizontally branching on ground; coma bracts pinkish-white or pinkish-pale green; corolla pale yellow with orange tip; labellum pale orange with an orange central band; anther crest very short, broadly ovate, wider than long. Curcuma zedoaroides is similar to C. zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, but differs in rhizome branching pattern; the protruding secondary rhizomes curved down; blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate; peduncle glabrous; fertile and coma bracts glabrous; corolla lobes pale yellow to white, lateral lobe ovate, dorsal lobe broadly ovate. The new taxa have been found in a village of Khon Kaen Province, Northeastern Thailand.
    • Markku HAKKINEN, Henry VARE
      2008, 46 (1): 89–92
      Since the initial description, the name Musa aurantiaca Baker (1893) has been unclear to most botanists. The aim of this study is to settle its true identity and to update the description. The plant is distributed in the regions of Upper Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India, Northern Myanmar and Tibet, China where it occurs commonly but it is not mentioned in Chinese literature at all. In this paper, the authors also review the description and the literature history of M. aurantiaca from 1893 to the present. Musa aurantiaca Baker is typified here.
    • Jin-Yong CHEN, Zuo-Shuang ZHANG, De-Yuan HONG
      2008, 46 (1): 93–95
      Five species of the Syringa pinetorum complex described by previous authors are revised. Syringa wardii W. W. Sm., S. mairei (H. Lév.) Rehder, S. rugulosa McKelvey and S. chuanxiensis S. Z. Qu & X. L. Chen are treated as synonyms of S. pinetorum on the basis of population sampling, character analysis and principal coordinate analysis, and S. mairei is a new synonym. Only one variable species, S. pinetorum, is here recognized in the complex.
    • Qian YU, Yan-Wen ZHANG, You-Hao GUO
      2008, 46 (1): 96–102
      A list of common terms in pollination biology was compiled from a large body of literature. For terms with existing Chinese translation, we checked and polished their translation; for those yet without translation, we proposed rendition based on the principle of understandability from the appearance. For important terms and the terms prone to be misunderstood, we provided elucidation or explanation with examples. Key words pollination biology, term, Chinese translation, elucidation.
    • 2008, 46 (1): 103–107
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
JCR 2022 IF ranking: 60/238 (Plant Sciences, top 25%, Q2 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly




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