Table of Contents

10 November 1995, Volume 33 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Hong De-yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 521-536.
    The distribution pattern of 44 recognized genera in the Campanulaceae(s.str.) was analysed.Genera-contour lines were constructed,which showed three centres of frequency of genera:the Eastern Asiatic region,Cape region and the Mediterranean region. Thirteen genera are found in E.Asia:Adenophora,Asyneuma,Campanula,Campanumoea, Codonopsis,Cyananthus,Cyclocodom,Echinocodon Hong,Homocodon Hong,Leptocodon, Peracarpa,Platycodon,and Wahlenbergia. Twelve of the 13 genera (except for Echinocodon) can be found in a small area of SW.China (E.& N.Yunnan,SW.Sichuan and SW.Guizhou).This is the most concentrated region of genera in the family.The Cape region has 10 genera: Craterocapsa,Merciera,Microcodon,Rhigiophyllum,Prismatocarpus,Roella,Siphocodon,Teilera,Treichelia and Wahlenbergia.Although the figure is not very high,the region is also concentrated one of genera,considering its small area.The last region possesses 14 genera:Adenophora,Asyneuma,Campanula,Edraianthus,Feeria,Jasione,Legousia,Mindium,Petromarula,Physoplexis,Phyteuma,Symphyandra,Trachelium and Wahlenbergia.The region is relatively large and the genera are rather evenly distributed;a relatively concentrated area is the Balkan Peninsula,where there are nine genera.The three centres totally has 32 genera,taking up 73 percent of the total number of genera in the family. Kolakovsky's(1987)classification system of the Campanulaceae,the only one for the whole family since Schonland(1889),could not be accepted.Instead,the present author tentatively recognizes six generic groups in the family,i.e.the Cyananthus Group,with two subgroups, the Cyananthus Subgroup and the Codonopsis Subgroup; the Platycodon Group, with two subgroups, the Platycodon Subgroup and the Campanumoea Subgroup; the Ostrowskia Group; the Wahlenbergia Group, with four subgroups, the Wahlenbergia Subgroup, the Prismatocarpus Subgroup,the Siphocodon Subgroup and the Merciera Subgroup, the Jasione Group;the Campanula Group, with three subgroups, the Campanula Subgroup,the Mindium Subgroup and the Musschia Subgroup. It is found that E. Asia possesses four generic groups consisting of six subgroups, the highest among the three centres. Therefore,E. Asia is the centre of form diversity in the Campanulaceae. The evolutionary trends of 26 characters in the family were inferred based on the analysis of the outgroup, Polemoniaceae, and the reference to the related families, Cyphiaceae and Lobeliaceae. The character primitiveness index was calculated for each genus. The most primitive genus, Cyananthus, and most of relatively primitive genera are concentrated in E. Asia, with the highest average character primitiveness index of genera. The region could be considered as the centre of primitive forms, and the other two regions as the differentiation centres. SW. China (E. & N. Yunnan, SW. Sichuan and SW. Guizhou), where 12 genera are found, is so-called Kan-Dian Old Land, and has been stable even since the Paleozoic,providing a con-dition for the differentiation of the primitive forms in the Campanulaceae. The present author speculates that the differentiation and dispersal of primitive forms in the family took place not later than the end of the Cretaceous and the family originated ever earlier, but he considers that the origin place of this family can hardly be inferred, considering the distribution pattern of the family

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  • Li Liang-qian
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 537-555.
    The subfamily Helleboroideae (Ranunculaceae) consists of 4 tribes,17 genera and 885 species:Helleboreae (Caltha,12 species,Calathodes,3 species;Trollius,31 species;Megaleranthis,1 species;Beesia,2 species;Helleborus,15 species;Eranthis,8 species),Cimicifugeae (Soulia,1 species;Anemonopsis,1 species;Cimicifuga,17 species; Actaea,6 species),Nigelleae (Komaroffia,2 species;Nigella,18 species;Garidella,2 species),Delphineae (Aconitum,about 400 species;Delphinium,about 320 species;Consolida,46 species).According to modern distribution of the genera,eight distribution patterns of Helleboroideae are recognized:1)the North temperate distribution pattern:Trollius, Cimicifuga,Actaea,Aconitum;2)the North temperate plus African distribution pattern: Delphinium;3)The Northern Hemisphere temperate and the Southern Hemisphere temperate disjunct pattern:Caltha;4)the Europe and eastern Asian disjunct pattern:Helleborus; 5)the Western Asian distribution pattern:Komaroffia;6)the Mediterranean distribution pattern:Nigella,Garidella,Consolida;7)the Eurasian and temperate Asian distribution pattern: Eranthis;8)the eastern-Asia endemic pattern:Calathodes,Megalderanthis,Beesia,Souliea,Anemonopsis.The morphological,palynological and cytological characters of the genera of Helleboroideae are analysed.Among them,Calathodes is probably a link betweenCaltha and Trollius;Megaleranthis is a link between Calathodes and Trollius;and Beesia is a link between the tribes Helleboreae and Cimicifugeae.On the other hand,statstic data shows that the eastern Asiatic Floristic region (especially Southwest China)is the richest in number of genera,species and endemic species of the Helleboroideae,and there occur many primitive or relatively primitive taxa and most or relatively advanced taxa of this subfamily in that region.To sum up,the eastern Asiatic Floristic region (especially Southwest China) is not only the distribution centre,diversity centre and the centre of endemic groups(certain genera,sections and species),but also the preservation centre of the primitive taxa and the differentiation centre of the Helleboroideae.
  • Yang Qin-er, Gong Xun
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 572-575.
    In this paper,a species of the genus Aconitum L.from Yunnan,A.tuguancunense Q.E.Yang,was described as new.Its chromosome number and karyotype,particularly intrapopulational variation of the number of B chromosomes,were reported.The number of B chromosomes was found variable not only among individuals but also among cells within the same root tip,ranging from 0 to 12.
  • Tsi Zhan-huo, Chen Sing-chi, Ding Shen-yan
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 576-591.
    The orchids in Hainan.were reported containing 58 genera,143 species and two varieties in Flora Hainanica(1977).Since then a number of papers have been published and many specimens collected.The present paper deals with new,little known or noteworthy orchids in Hainan,concerning 36 genera,57 species and one variety,of which two (Bulbophyllum obtusiangulum Tsi,Sunipia hainanensis Tsi) are new to science and 18 new to Hainan,In addition,one new name(Ceratostylis hainanensis Tsi) is proposed and five names are reduced to synonyms.So far,there are altogether 68 genera,178 species and three varieties of orchids known from Hainan Island.
  • Luo Yi-bo, Chen Sing-chi
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 592-596.
    A revision is made of the genus Fritillaria in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River on the basis of field and herbarium material.Three species and a variety are recognized in this area,and fourteen spceies and five varieties are reduced as synonyms.
  • Li De-zhu, Hsueh Chi-ju, Xia Nian-he
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 597-601.
    A new bamboo genus,Gaoligongshania D.Z.Li,Hsueh et N.H.Xia is described here to accommodate Arundinaria megathyrsa Hand.-Mazz.from Northwest Yunnan,China after comprehensive collection and study of the species.The new genus is certainly a member of the subtribe Arundinarinae Bentham in the sense of Clayton & Renvoize (1986) and Soderstrom & Ellis (1987) and may be a link between Indocalamus and the Thamnocalamus complex(the so-called alpine bamboos).Its inflorescence is determinate(semelauctant)with normal grass spikelets,large and conspicuously auricled leaves and single branch complements which are as thick as culms.Gaoligongshania related to Indocalamus but has sympodial rhizomes,clustered culms,very large inflorescences,linear spikelets and three stigmas.Itis sometimes epiphytic in habit.It also shows affinity with the Thamnocalamus complex with the same inflorescence and rhizome types.The complex,however,is one of the most difficult groups in defining bamboo genera and was considered as an independent subtribe(Keng f.,1982)or has even been put into the genus Arundinaria in the broadest sense(Soderstrom & Ellis, 1988). Even then,Gaoligongshania can still be considered distinct because of its branch pattern and unusual inflorescence and spikelets. Although Gaoligongshania is superficially similar to Monocladus Chia et al. in its vegetative state,it belongs to a different subtribe, and its reproductive state is very different from Monocladus. In that genus, the inflorescence is indeterminate (iterauctant) and is composed of pseudospikelets with 6 stamens and conspicuous ovary appendages.
  • Fang Ding, Qin De-hai, Rao Wei-yuan, Zeng Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 602-607.
  • Tan Zhong-ming
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 608-611.
  • Peng Wei-dong, Peng Ze-xiang
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 612-613.
  • Li Sheng-feng, Wang Zheng-ping
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 614-615.
  • Wei Yin-xin
    J Syst Evol. 1995, 33(6): 616-623.