J Syst Evol ›› 1995, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 521-536.

• Research Articles •

### The Geography of the Campanulaceae: On the Distribution Centres

Hong De‐yuan

• Published:1995-11-10

Abstract: The distribution pattern of 44 recognized genera in the Campanulaceae(s．str．) was analysed．Genera-contour lines were constructed，which showed three centres of frequency of genera：the Eastern Asiatic region，Cape region and the Mediterranean region． Thirteen genera are found in E．Asia：Adenophora，Asyneuma，Campanula，Campanumoea， Codonopsis，Cyananthus，Cyclocodom，Echinocodon Hong，Homocodon Hong，Leptocodon， Peracarpa，Platycodon，and Wahlenbergia． Twelve of the 13 genera (except for Echinocodon) can be found in a small area of SW．China (E．＆ N．Yunnan，SW．Sichuan and SW．Guizhou)．This is the most concentrated region of genera in the family．The Cape region has 10 genera: Craterocapsa，Merciera，Microcodon，Rhigiophyllum，Prismatocarpus，Roella，Siphocodon，Teilera，Treichelia and Wahlenbergia．Although the figure is not very high，the region is also concentrated one of genera，considering its small area．The last region possesses 14 genera：Adenophora，Asyneuma，Campanula，Edraianthus，Feeria，Jasione，Legousia，Mindium，Petromarula，Physoplexis，Phyteuma，Symphyandra，Trachelium and Wahlenbergia．The region is relatively large and the genera are rather evenly distributed；a relatively concentrated area is the Balkan Peninsula，where there are nine genera．The three centres totally has 32 genera，taking up 73 percent of the total number of genera in the family． Kolakovsky's(1987)classification system of the Campanulaceae，the only one for the whole family since Schonland(1889)，could not be accepted．Instead，the present author tentatively recognizes six generic groups in the family，i．e．the Cyananthus Group，with two subgroups, the Cyananthus Subgroup and the Codonopsis Subgroup; the Platycodon Group, with two subgroups, the Platycodon Subgroup and the Campanumoea Subgroup; the Ostrowskia Group; the Wahlenbergia Group, with four subgroups, the Wahlenbergia Subgroup, the Prismatocarpus Subgroup,the Siphocodon Subgroup and the Merciera Subgroup, the Jasione Group;the Campanula Group, with three subgroups, the Campanula Subgroup,the Mindium Subgroup and the Musschia Subgroup. It is found that E. Asia possesses four generic groups consisting of six subgroups, the highest among the three centres. Therefore,E. Asia is the centre of form diversity in the Campanulaceae. The evolutionary trends of 26 characters in the family were inferred based on the analysis of the outgroup, Polemoniaceae, and the reference to the related families, Cyphiaceae and Lobeliaceae. The character primitiveness index was calculated for each genus. The most primitive genus, Cyananthus, and most of relatively primitive genera are concentrated in E. Asia, with the highest average character primitiveness index of genera. The region could be considered as the centre of primitive forms, and the other two regions as the differentiation centres. SW. China (E. ＆ N. Yunnan, SW. Sichuan and SW. Guizhou), where 12 genera are found, is so-called Kan-Dian Old Land, and has been stable even since the Paleozoic,providing a con-dition for the differentiation of the primitive forms in the Campanulaceae. The present author speculates that the differentiation and dispersal of primitive forms in the family took place not later than the end of the Cretaceous and the family originated ever earlier, but he considers that the origin place of this family can hardly be inferred, considering the distribution pattern of the family