Table of Contents
  • Volume 33 Issue 5

      
      Research Articles
    • Li Lin-chu
      1995, 33 (5): 417–432
      Pinaceae is the largest family in gymnosperms,containing about 230 species in 10 genera.Based mainly on morphological characters of leaves,long and short branches,it is generally classified into three subfamilies,i.e.Abietoideae (Keteleeria,Abies,Pseudotsuga, Tsuga,Cathaya,Picea),Laricoideae (Larix,Pseudolarix,Cedrus) and Pinoideae (Pinus).Five types of karyotypes was defined in this family.(1) Pines Type [24(22)m+O(2)sm,Pinus];(2)Silver-Fir Type [(22~14)m+(2~10)sm(st),Cathaya,Picea, Tsuga,Cedrus,Keteleeria,Abies];(3)Larches Type[12m十12sm(st),Pseudotsuga, Larix];(4)Oregon-Douglas-Fir Type(10m+12sm+4t,Pseudotsuga menziesii);(5) Golden-Larch Type[4sm+40t(4SC),Pseudolarix).In the light of comparative analysis of the karyotypic data,the evolutionary sequence of the genera may be as follows:Pinus (Pines Type)→Cathaya,Picea,Tsuga,Cedrus,Keteleeria,Abies (Silver-Fir Type)→ Pseudotsuga,Larix (Larches Type,Oregon-Douglas-Fir Type)→Pseudolarix (Golden-Larch Type).This sequence and the relationships among the genera (excl.Pseudolarix) are clearly shown in Figure 1.The monotypic genus Pseudolarix with the karyotype K(2n)=44=4sm+40t(4SC) is rather different from all the other genera (2n=24) of the family not only in chromosome number and karyotype,but also in its peculiar habit,and a number of morphological and anatomical characters.Therefore,it seems reasonable to raise Pseudolarix to subfamily level,Pseudolaricoideae L.C.Li,and to reduce the three previously recognized subfamilies to three corresponding tribes (Abieteae,Lariceae and Pineae),which belong to another subfamily Pinoideae. Pseudotsuga and Larix, having the karyotype K(2n)= 24=12m+ 12sm(st), should constitute the Tribe Lariceae, and Cedrus [K(2n)= 24=(20,18)m+(4,6)sm] be placed in Abieteae as its karyotype is similar to that of the tribe.Based on the karyotypic data, a new system of Pinaceae is proposed which is supported by data from morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, immunology, biochemistry, embryology and paleobotany, etc. Meanwhile, the comments on the previous systems of the Pinaceae are made in this paper. Subfam. I Pinoideae Pilger 1926 Keteleeria Carr. 1866 2n=24 Tribe 1 Pineae Parl. 1868 Abies Mill. 1754 2n=24 Pinus Linn. 1753 2n=24 Tribe 3 Lariceae Takhtajan 1956 Tribe 2 Abieteae Spach 1842 Pseudotsuga Carr. 1867 2n=24(26) Cathaya Chen et Kuang 1958 2n=24 Larix Mill. 1754 2n 24 Picea Dietr. 1824 2n=24 Subfam. II Pseudolaricoideae L. C. Li Tsuga Carr. 1855 2n=24 Tribe 4 Pseudolariceae L. C. LiCedrus Trew 1757 2n=24 Pseudolarix Gord. 1858 2n=44
    • Ge Song, Hong De-yuan
      1995, 33 (5): 433–443
      Adenophora potaninii Korsh.complex is a morphologically variable group including six species.As shown in many species in the genus Adenophora,the variability of many morphological characters in the complex under investigation is amazingly great,which brings difficulties in the delimitation and indentification of taxa.In the present study,six populations representing five species in the complex were systematically sampled to investigate the pattern of morphological variation within population and to detect the genetic basis of the variation with progeny tests and controlled crosses.The results are as follows: Great morphological variation within population is found (Fig.1),including characters such as leaf shape,teeth number and size of leaf margins,teeth number of calyx lobes,and indumentum on the surface of stems and leaves,which were previously considered as diagnotic.Systematic sampling and statistical analysis show that the differences in the above characters exhibit continuous patterns of variation within population (Fig.1,2),though they are highly correlated (Table 2).From progeny testing and crossing between two contrast types of individuals (oblong,dentate and pubescent leaves vs.narrow,entire and glabrous leaves)it is evident that those characters show continuous variability in segregating progenies (Fig.3,4)and appear to be influenced by large numbers of loci with individually slight effects.Since most wild populations were highly heterozygous for those characters,the individuals in one extreme of variation can produce their variable offsprings including individuals similar to those in the other extreme (Fig. 3). This is also true for the indumentum density on stems and teeth number of calyx lobes. In this complex, A. biformifolia Y. Z. Zhao, A. bockiana Diels and A. polydentata P.F. Tu et G. J. Xu were described exclusively based on leaf shapes, teeth number of leaf margins and calyx lobes, teeth size of leaf margins, and indumentum on the surface of stemsand leaves. It is demonstrated, however, that the variation of those characters is of a quantitative nature and show no discontinuities. As a result, genetic analysis of diagnostic characters along with their sympatric distribution and same habitats, strongly suggest that A.biformifolia as well as A. bockiana and A. polydentata are actually the extreme individuals within A. wawreana and A. potaninii respectively and should not be recognized as taxa at any taxonomic level.
    • Rao Guang-yuan, Pan Kai-yu
      1995, 33 (5): 444–452
      Embryology of Polygonatum humile Fisch.ex Maxim.was studied in the present work. The anther was found to be 4-sporangiate. The tapetum,of which each cell contained two or many nuclei at the late stage, was the Glandular type. Metosis of the microspore mother cells was accompanied by successive cytokinesis,and resulted in isobilateral and tetrahedral tetrads. The mature pollen grains were of 2-celled type. The ovary was trilocular. The placentation was axile,but the sutures of carpels were not fully fused in the center of the ovary above the placentas. The ovule was biteguminous, crassinucellate and anatropous.The micropyle was formed by the inner integument.The development of the embryo sac was of the Allium type.Raphides were observed in the ovary wall and the outerintegument after fertilization.The development of the embryo was similar to the Asterad type.The endosperm was of the Nuclear type. The gigantic endosperm nucleus was formed and not cellulated at the chalazal end. According to the data from the present and previous works,the embryological characters of Polygonatum were described.The concept and circumscription of the tribe Polygonateae proposed by Dahlgren et al.(1985) were discussed with the comparison of the embryological data in and out of the tribe.Meanwhile,the systematic relationships between the genera of the tribe were also discussed.
    • Yang Qing-er
      1995, 33 (5): 453–460
      Investigated in this paper was the karyomorphology of Calathodes oxycarpa (Ranunculaceae).The resting nuclei and the prophase chromosomes were categorized to be complex chromocenter type and interstitial type respectively;the metaphase chromosomes were relatively large and belonged to Ranunculus-type (R type);the karyotype was formulated as 2n=16=8sm+8st(2sat).Based on the results,combined with the evidence from comparative morphology and palynology,the genus Calathodes is considered to be most closely related to Trollius and Megaleranthis. It is not reasonable to put them in different tribes or subfamilies.
    • Jia Yu, Wu Pan-cheng, Luo Jian-xin
      1995, 33 (5): 461–468
      The Jiuwan Mountains,situated in the middle of northern Guangxi,South China(25°10’~25°25’N,108°27'E),is a transitional region between the Holarctic flora and Paleotropical flora.Its main vegetation is subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests consisting of the Lauraceae,Teaceae,Fagaceae and Magnoliaceae.The highest peak of the mountains is 1693 m above sea level,and its bottom is only 170 m. In 1931,H.Reimers first reported the mossflora of Guangxi titled“Beitraege Zur Mossflora China I”.Four years later,Edwin B.Bartram published“Additions to the mossflora of China”.Hu Sun-si(1981)reported twenty-five species of mosses in Guangxi in “Preliminary observation on bryophytes in the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Huaping Forest Region in Guangxi”.Up to then reported were about 25 families,43 genera and 62 species of mosses in Guangxi. In 1989,Li Zhen-yu,Long Guang-ri and Zhang Can-ming made the first botanical expedition to the mountains and about 500 packages of bryophytes were collected there.One year later,Wang Mei-zhi,He Xiao-lan and the first author of this paper made bryophytic survey in the mountains,and about 1350 packages of bryophtes were collected there.From a11 the above specimens,35 families,101 genera and 189 species of Mosses are identified. According to “The areal-types of Chinese genera of seed plants” by Wu Zheng-yi,ten type of the mossflora of the Jiuwan Mountains are recognized: Cosmopolitans ( 8 families and 9 genera ), Pantropical elements( 7 families and 8 genera ), Paleotropical elements (4 families and 4 genera), Tropical Asian to African elements (4 families and 5 genera), Tropical Asian elements (19 families and 33 genera), North Temperate elements (9 families and 17 genera), East Asian & North American disjunctive elements (6 families and 6 genera), Temperate Asian elements (4 families and 4 genera), East Asian elements (71 species), Endemic to China (5 species). Totally, the East Asian elements are the most important ones (39.33%), then the tropical and subtropical elements (38. 20%) are also abundant, and the temperate elements (18.54%) are the third one. For considering the relationships between the mossflora of the Jiuwan Mountains and those of the neighbouring regions, the authors selected five regions around the Mountains. The similarity coefficient of moss genera between the Jiuwan Mountains and the Jinfu Mountains, east Sichuan, is 60. 68% ,and that of moss species is 36.87% . The similarity coefficient of moss genera and species between the Jiuwan Mountains and the Wuyi Mountains are 69. 86% and 39. 57% respectively, higher than those of the other mountain regions. Comparing the mossfloras of the Jiuwan Mountains and the Jianfeng Mountains, there are fourty species commonly, among them thirty-two species are tropical elements which clearly show the close affinity to the tropical mossflora. The similarity coefficient of moss genera and species of the above two mountain are 57.29% and 29.63% rsepectively. Due to the influence of the Himalayas, the tropical elements of Xishuangbanna are different from the Jiuwan Mountains and the Jianfeng Mountains. Floristically, Shennongjia is situated in the transitional region between West and East China, and the similarity coefficient of moss genera and species between the Jiuwan Mountains and Shennongjia are 57.29% and 33.13%. East-Asiatic endemic genera of the bryophytes are regarded as “Tertiary fossil plants” which enjoy a warm and moist environment. They are mainly limited to temperate and subtropical region. Though there are some species of East-Asiatic element in Xishuangbanna,East-Asiatic endemic genera so far have not been found. There are two genera of East-Asiatic endemic genera of the bryophytes in Jianfengling belonging to tropical region. Nine of East-Asiatic endemic genera of the bryophytes have been recorded in Mt. Jinfu, and show the characteristic of overlapping distribution between Eastern and Western. Topographically, the Jiuwan Mountains is located at the Southeast of the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau, the edge of second step of China, so far four East Asiatic endemic genera, Taiwanobryum, Pilotriopsis, Meteoriella and Neobarbella have been found. Among them the former two genera are distributed in Japan and the Philippines, however, Meteoriella is found in Nepal and Japan, as well, it was widely recorded in South of Yangtze River and at 2000 meters above the sea level of the evergreen forest in Southeastern Xizang(Tibet), China. Neobarbella occurs in Sikkim, India, the Philippines, Indonesia and Japan, and China is recognized as the distribution centre of this genus. Generally, the above data show that the East Asiatic endemic genera of mosses are evidently influented by the Himalayas. In the Jiuwan Mountains, it is worth to notice that there are about 7% of the tropical species of mosses, such as Syrrhopodon flamme-nervis, Hookeriopsis geminidens, Pterobryopsis crassicaulis and Garovaglia plicata , which clearly indicate the close relationships of the mossflora of Mt. Jiuwan with the tropical elements. However, some tropical mosses, such as Pyrrhogonium spiniforme and Chrysocladium retrorsum, which are found at about 1000 meters above the sea level, also distribute to the South of Yangtze River. The geological data showed that the formation of the South China Sea was the very important event happened in South China in Tertiary. Hainan Island, as one of the migration route with South Asia and South Hemisphere, connected with the Asia continent until the late tertiary. Before that period of time, the Jiuwan Mountains was under the control of the tropical and subtropical climate with Xishuangbanna and Taiwan. Owing to the submergence of Qiongzhou Strait, Hainan Island became an isolated island, then the South Sea gradually formed. A series tropical species occuring in the Jiuwan Mountains might be the evidence of the migration between Laurasia and Gondwana ancient continent. Several moss genera, Garovaglia , Oedicladium , Pterobryopsis , Leucoloma , Dicranoloma and Callicostella, occuring both in North and South Heimephere, are found in the Jiuwan Mountains now. They might show the bryoflora relationships between the Jiuwan Mountains of South China and Africa, Central and South America. In fact, South America connected with Africa before Jurassic, and the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean were not so broad as right now. The ordination method was used for calculating the figure of two dimensional arrangement, the mossflora of the Jiuwan Mountains is very close to that of the Wuyi Mountains. However the typical tropical mosses occuring in the Jiuwan Mountains have not been found in the later mountain region. The Wuyi Mountains, the natural defence for South China, is recognized as the boundary line between Central subtropical and South subtropical region in China. While the mossflora of the Jiuwan Mountains is represented the tropical relationships, but its subtropical elements are still abundant. Depending on the quantitative and qualitative analysis, the authors consider that the mossflora of the Jiuwan Mountains represents the transitional characteristic from tropical region to subtropical region in South China, and in Guangxi the boundary line between them might be set at the south of the Jiuwan Mountains. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Zhang Li-bing, Kung Hsian-shiu
      1995, 33 (5): 469–475
      The paper deals with the taxonomic problem of the fern section, Polystichum Roth Sect. Metapolystichum Tagawa. The concept of Sect. Metapolystichum employed here roughly follows that of Daigobo (1972) with some modifications, i. e. "leaves bipinnate, herbaceous; pinnules more or less petioled, with narrow-type microscales; raches without gemmae". A new system of the section comprising 5 series is proposed, a key to the series is as follows: 1. Pinnules without hydathodes. 2. Stipes with ovate, ovato-lanceolate or broadly lanceolate scales. 3. Pinnules with auricles. 4. Microseales longer than 1.5 mm, dense; scales of stipes bicolorous or concolorous ............................................................ Set. 4. Brauniana 4. Microscales usually shorter than 1.0 mm, sparse; scales of stipes bicolorous .............................................................. Ser. 5. Makinoiana 3. Pinnules without auricles ..................................... Set. 3. Exauricula 2. Stipes only with linear or lanceolato-linear scales .............. Set. 2. Linearia 1. Pinnules with hydathodes ............................................ Ser. 1. Punctifera In this paper, microscales of Polystichum are considered of significance in taxonomy of this genus and can be divided into two types: the Long-type (longer than 1.5 mm) and the Short-type (shorter than 1.0 mm). The paper recognizes 22 species of Sect. Metapolystichum in China, of which one species, P. longipinnulum Naif is new to China, P. glingense Ching et Y. X. Ling and P. shennongense Ching, Boofford et Shing are treated as synonyms of P. punctiferum C. Chr. and P. braunii (Spenn.) Fee respectively. P. mucronifolium (BI.) Presl and P. setiferum (Forsk.) Moore ex Woynar are considered not distributed in China (even in the Himalayas). As to the lectotype of P. yunnanense Christ, Henry 9101 (Yunnan: Mengzi, alt. 1500~2100 m, Henry 9101, PE!) is chosen by the authors, while, Ducloux 102 sellected by C. R. Fraser-Jenkins & S. P. Khullar (1985) can not be taken as the lectotype. P. nudisorum Ching, ignored by many botanist, is different from P. longipaleatum Christ by its darkly brown stipe scales and a smaller distribution area at higher altitudes. The paperalso describes the geographical distribution of this section.
    • Shan Ren-hua, Pu Fa-ting
      1995, 33 (5): 476–483
    • Chen Sing-chi, Liang Song-yun
      1995, 33 (5): 490–490
    • Cai Lian-bing
      1995, 33 (5): 491–496
    • Jin Shu-ying
      1995, 33 (5): 497–498
    • Tong Shao-quan
      1995, 33 (5): 499–501
    • Liu Jian-lin
      1995, 33 (5): 501–501
    • Zhang Cun-yi, Zhao Yu-hou
      1995, 33 (5): 503–505
    • Luan Ri-xiao, Luan Shu-jun
      1995, 33 (5): 506–515
      This paper is a part of the studies on the specimens of Ectocarpaceae collected from Liaoning and Hainan provinces, China. In the present paper, 13 species are reported, all these species are new records to China.
    • Zhu Hui-zhong, Chen Jia-you
      1995, 33 (5): 516–519
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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