Table of Contents

18 September 1993, Volume 31 Issue 5
    Research Articles
  • Sun Gen-lou, Yang Jun-liang, Yen Chi
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 393-398.
    Intergeneric crosses were made betweem Psathyrostachys huashanica (2n=14, NN)and two Roegneria species, namely, R. ciliaris (2n=28, SSYY), and R. tsukushiensis (2n=42, SSHHYY). Two combinations of P. huashanica crossed with R. ciliaris and R. tsukushiensis produced adult hybrid plants. Although completely sterile, the hybrid plants developed rather vigorously, and were morphologically intermediate between the two parents.Two spikelets per node in part were observed in hybrids, which evidently came from P. huashanica. The chromosome configurations of R. ciliaris × P. huashanica and R. tsukushiensis × P. huashanica were 20.73 I+0.318 II, 24.80 I+1.578 II+0. 012 III, respectively. Polypolar division was found at anaphase I in meiosis of two hybrids. Abnormal meiosis in two hybrids was observed. The chromosome pairing indicates that there is only a little chromosome homoeology between “N” genome of P. huashanicaand “S”, “Y” or “H” genomes of R. ciliaris and R. tsukushiensis.
  • Gu Zhi-jian, Wang Li, Gong Xun, Xiao Tiao-jiang
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 399-404.
    Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr. is widely distributed in the area from the Himalayas to Indonesia, via south China, Indo-China and Taiwan, especially in the various parts of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the karyotype variation of six populations of the apecies from southeastern, middle and northwestern part of Yunnan are studied. The result shows that the chromosome number of all the populations are 2n= 14. The species was reported to have 2n= 16, 30 (Hasegawa 1932, Mehra and Pathamia 1960, Kurosawa 1966, 1971, Tang et al. 1984) and 2n= 14 (Kurosawa 1971, Mehra and Sachdeva 1976a). 2n= 14, 2n= 16 and 2n=32 were observed in the material from Taiwan (Chuang, et al. 1962, Chao, 1963, Hsu, 1971, 1972, Chang, 1974). Based on the cytological study of D. megalanthum Wang et Tang and seven other species in this genus reported by other authors, Hong and Zhu (1990) consider that the basic number of this genus is x= 8, because species with 2n= 16 was more than those with 2n= 14, despite some number variation of chromosomes in this genus. Based on the results of the present paper, we consider that x= 7 might be one of the basic numbers of this genus. In the karyotypes studied here, the relative chromosome lengths and the ratio of the longest/the shortest chromosomes of the six populations are rather approximate. Moreover, all the karyotypes belong to Stebbins’3B type. However, karyotype variation was detected in these populations. The homologues of the 2nd, 3rd and 6th pair of chromosomes are different from each other, the numbers and popsition of satellites are found very different, among the populations except for the Lijiang population, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th pair of all the populations exhibited heterozygosity. Although all the karyotypes belong to Stebbins ‘3B type, the homologues were more regular in the Lijiang population than in the other populations, and the most irregular in the Wenshan population, because it hadfour pairs of heterozygous chromosomes.
  • Li Lin-chu
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 405-412.
    The present paper reports the karyotype of Larix potaninii Batal. endemic to China, and discuss classification of Larix and its systematic position in the Pinaceae based on karyotype and other data. The karyotypic formula of the species is K(2n)=24= 12m+ 8sm+4st, which belongs to Stebbins’2A type and the chromosome complement of relative length is 2n=24=4L+8M2+8M1+4S. The karyotype of the genus Larix (10 species) is composed of six pairs of longer metacentric chromosomes and six pairs of shorter submetacentric or subtelocentric chromosomes with arm ratio>2. This karyotype is an advanced one. It seems that Sect. Multiserales is more advanced than Sect. Larix. On the basis of the comparison among the karyotypes of pinaceous genera, the author finds that Larix and Pseudotsuga are much more closely related to each other than any of them to the others. Therefore, it may be more appropriate to group these two genera into Subfamily Laricoideae, which is a more advanced one. The conclusion is also supported by the data from morphology, anatomy, palynology,biochemistry, palaeobotany and so on.
  • Liu Qi-xin, Sheh Meng-lan, Chen Xiao-ya
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 413-421.
    The karyotypes of somatic cells of three species in Ferula L. (Umbelliferae) from China are reported for the first time in this paper. F. licentiana Hand. -Mazz., endemic to China, has the karyotype formula of 2n= 22= 14m+ 2sm+ 6st( 2SAT), which consists of nine pairs of L chromosomes (the relative length > 8.0) and two pairs of M chromosomes (the relative length, 8.0- 6.0). The index of the karyotypic asymmetry (AS. K%) is 36.36%, and the karyotype belongs to 2A (Stebbins 1971). F. licentiana var. tunshanica (Su) Shan et Q. X. Liu has the karyotypic formula of 2n=22= 14m+ 8st(2SAT), and the other characters of karyotype are very similar to those of F. licentiana. The karyotypic formula of F. bungeana Kitag. is 2n=22= 12m+ 6sm+ 2st. There are 8 pairs of L chromosomes and 3 pairs of M chromosomes in this karyotype. The AS.K% is 45.45% and thus the karyotype is rather symmetrical (2A). Based on above data, F.licentiana var. tunshanica may be treated as a variety of F.licentiana and F.bungeana be separated from Subgen. Peucedanoides. According to our study and available data, we consider that the basic chromosome number of Ferula is x= 11. The karyotypic evolution of 11 species in the genus from China is analysed. All species are grouped into 5 groups based on the cluster analysis of chromosome data: I.F. akitschensis B. Fedtsch. ex K.-Pol.; II. F. lapidosa Korov., III. F. bungeana. The above-mentioned three species belong to Subgen. Peucedanoides in classification. IV. This group is divided into two subgroups: (1) F. syreitschikowii K.-Pol. and F. ovina (Boiss.) Boiss.; (2) F. lehmannii Boiss., F. licentiana, F. licentiana var. tunshanica, F. Kirialovii Pimen. and F. sumbul (Kauffm.)Hook. f., in which F.lehmannii belongs to Subgen. Merwia, F. syteritschikowii to Subgen. Narthex and the rest five species to Subgen.Peucedanoides. V. F.caspica M. Bieb. of Subgen. Doromatoides.
  • Sha Wei, Yang Xiao-jie, Pan Bo, Zu Guo-hui
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 422-424.
    In this paper the chromosome number of 6 mosses species are reported. The materials used for investigation were taken from immature capsules. Meiosis in spore mother cells were observed, and the results are as follows: Brachythecium plumosum, n=15. Entodon obtusatus, n = 11. E.okamurae, n = 11. Anoectangium aestivum, n= 13. Bryum argenteum, n= 10. Eurhynchium eustegium, n = 20+ 2m. The chromosome number of the former three species are re-ported for the first time.
  • Xi Yi-zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 425-431.
    The pollen morphology of Cephalotaxaceae was examined with LM, SEM and TEM. Pollen grains in this family are spheroidal or subspheroidal, rounded in polar view, but usually wrinkled with irregular shape. Pollen size is 22.6- 34.8 μm in diameter. There is a distinct or indistinct tenuity on distal face. The tenuity occasionally slightly rises above the outline of pollen grains, but often sukened. Exine rather thin, 1—1.5μm thick, layers obscure, surface of pollen grains is nearly psilate or weakly granulate. Under SEM exine is covered with fine and dense granules, and sparse Ubisch bodies are found on the granular layer. The Ubisch bodies are provided with minute gemmate processes on the surface. Acorrding to our observation under TEM, exine consists of ectexine and lamellate endexine, with the former divided into outer ectexine of granules densely arranged and inner ectexine of loosely arranged microgranules. Granules of the outer ectexine are relatively thick, and connected with each other, forming a structure just like tectum or separate from each other. Microgranules of the inner ectexine are distinct or indistinct. Endexine is provided with 5- 7 lamellae. As far as information of pollen morphology is concerned, Cephalotaxus oliveri is rather special in the Cephalotaxaceae. First, the tenuity in pollen grains occupies one half of the distal part, much larger than that of the other species in the family. Second, the ectexine in Cephalotaxus oliveri may be divided into two distinct layers, outer ectexine and inner ectexine. The former is made of a layer of sporopollenin masses, which are connected with each other to form tectumlike structure, while the latter consists of a layer of loosely arranged granules or small segments of sporopollenin. The inner ectexine is different from that of other species by having a thicker layer of sporopollenin granules. Based on these two features, we support the division of Cephalotaxus into two Sections, Sect. Pectinatae and Sect. Cephalotaxus. Pollen grains of Cephalotaxaceae are similar to those of the Taxaceae in having spheroidal shape and the tenuity on its distal face. These characteristics strengthen the evidence for a close relationship between the Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae. Although pollen grains of the Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae are similar in some characteristics, they have obvious differences in , for example, size of tenuity, the fine structure of Ulbisch bodies and of the outer and inner ectexine. On the basis of pollen morphology, the present author considers theCephalotaxaceae slightly more primitive than the Taxaceae.
  • Shih Chu
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 432-450.
    The Present paper is a preliminary result of study on three genera, Dubyaea, Syncalathium and Soroseris of the tribe Lactuceae (Compositae) in China. The genus Dubyaea in China so far known consists of 14 species, of which six are described here as new: D. pteroponda Shih, D. lanceolate Shih, D. muliensis Shih, D. panduriformis Shih, D. cymiformis Shih and D. jinyangensis Shih. In addition, one new combination, i.e.D. bhotanica (Hutch.) Shih, is made. There are six species in the genus Syncalathium in Chinese flora, of which one species is described here as new. This is S. orbiculariforme Shih. A new combination, S. pilosum (Hand.-Mazz.) Shih, is made in the paper. The genus Soroseris comprises nine species, of which three are described here as new, S. teres Shih, S. chrysocephala Shih and S. qinghaiensis Shih. Three new combinations, i.e.S. trichocarpa (Franch.) Shih, S. hirsuta (Anth.) Shih, and S.erysimoides (Hand.-Mazz.) Shih are made in the present paper.
  • Lu Ling-ti
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 451-462.
    Fifteen new taxa of the genus Ribes L. (Saxifragaceae) are described from China. These new taxa are R. alpestre var. eglandulosum L. T. Lu, R. burejense var. villosum L. T. Lu, R. moupinense var. pubicarpum L. T. Lu, R. himalense var. pubicalycinum L. T. Lu et J. T. Pan, R. meyeri var. pubescens L. T. Lu, R. davidi var. ciliatum L. T. Lu, R. davidi var. lobatum L. T. Lu, R. laurifolium var. yunnanense L. T. Lu, R. xizangense L. T. Lu, R. glabricalycinum L. T. Lu, R. tenue var. incisum L. T. Lu, R. vilmorinii var. pubicarpum L. T. Lu, R. rubrisepalum L. T. Lu, R. glabrifolium L. T. Lu, R.fasciculatum var. guizhouense L. T. Lu.
  • Fang Ding, Qin De-hai, Zeng Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 463-471.
    Four new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi of China are described and illustrated. They are Lagarosolen integrifolius, D. Fang et L. Zeng Chirita wentsaii D. Fang et L. Zeng, C. cyrtocarpa D. Fang et L. Zeng and Chiritopsisglandulosa D. Fang, L. Zeng et D. H. Qin.
  • Xing Fu-wu, Li Ze-xian
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 472-474.
    one new species of the genus Ehretia i.e.E. changjiangensis Xing et Z.X. Li, is described as new from Hainan Province of China.
  • Lin You-xing
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 475-476.
    One new species of the genus Lepisorus (L. petiolatus Ching et Y. X. Lin) and one new record of the genus Colysis (C. membranacea (Bl.) Presl) arereported from Guangxi, China.
  • Wei Yin-xin
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 477-486.
    Fifteen new taxa of the Desmidiaceae are described and illustrated from the Hengduan Mountains region of China. They are Euastrum gemmatum f. denticulatum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum var. subcapitum, C. dovrense var. fontanum, C. foveolatum, C. sichuanense, C. subdanicum var. granulatum, C. subsuperbum, C. tibeticum var. papilliferum, C. venustum var. arcuatum, C. yunnanense, Staurastrum elaticeps var. eximium, S. longiradiatum f. basispinulosum, S. pseudosebaldi var. compactum f.reductum, S. sebaldi var. ornatum f. spiniferum,S. sonthalium f. spiniferum.
  • Zhang Ning, Chen Chong-ming
    J Syst Evol. 1993, 31(5): 487-488.