Table of Contents

10 September 1992, Volume 30 Issue 5
    Research Articles
  • Tang Ya
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 385-404.
    The Chinese Elaeocarpus Linn. is revised. Here reported are those taxa with different treatment in “Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. “, Tomus 49 (1), including one new species and one new variety: Elaeocarpus limitaneioides Y. Tang and E. glabripetalus var. grandifructus Y. Tang, Four species and two varieties are reduced: E. boreali-yunnanensis H. T. Chang is reduced to E. lacunosus Wall. ex Kurz; E. floribundioides H. T. Chang to E. austro-yunnanensis Hu; E. fengjieensis P. C. Tuan to E. duclouxii Gagnep .; E. kwangsiensis H .T. Chang to E. glabripetalus var. alatus(Knuth) H. T. Chang; E. glabripetalus var. teres H. T. Chang to E. glabripetalus var. glabripetalus ; E. prunifolioides var. rectinervis H. T. Chang to E. prunifolioides Hu. It is found that three species, E. rugosus Roxb., E. sikkimensis Mast. and E. decandrus Merr., were wrongly determined as E. apiculatus Mast., E. fleuryi Gagnep. and E. chinensis Hook. f., respectively. In the paper also reported are some provincial new records. The infrageneric systems are discussed briefly and the Masters’ system isfollowed with some modifications.
  • Zhou Yin, Jiang Xiao-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 405-414.
    The systematic positions and taxonomic ranks of orders and families in Gymnosperms, especially those in Coniferopsida, are analysed and discussed in this paper based on the evolutionary trends in the wood structure. The opinions of the present authors are as follow: 1. The separation of the Araucariaceae from the Coniferae and establishment of the Araucariales are reasonable,because the intertracheid pitting in the wood is the Araucarioid type and there are no pits on both horizontal and end walls of ray parenchyma cells in the family. 2. The position of the genus Ginkgo in Cheng’s system is acceptable. Ginkgo is more similar to Coniferae than to Cycadaceae in the wood structure. 3. According to the characteristics of wood structure, arrangement of the Podocarpaceae, Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae between the Araucariaceae and the Pinaceae is reasonable. Among these families, the Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae are more closely related to each other in the view of the spiral thickenings which often appear on the inner wall of wood tracheids. 4. Further evidence for the establishment of the Sciadopitysaceae is provided. For example, most of cross-field pits in the wood of the Sciadopitysaceae are window like, while some of them are of the Lemon type or the Subtaxodioid type; bordered pits are of the Araucaria B type. 5. The characteristics of wood structure in the genus Platycladus differ greatly from Thuja. The former has cross field pits of the Cupressoid type, bordered pits of Araucaria B type and warty layer on the inner surface of tracheids. All of these characteristics have added further evidence for the separation of Platycladus from Thuja. 6. Based on the structural characteristics of woody rays in the Pinaceae, the most primitive genera are Abies, Keteleeria and Pseudolarix, while more advanced ones are Cedrus and Tsuga, and even more advanced ones are Pseudotsuga, Cathaya, Picea and Larix, all of which share normal resin canals. The most advanced genus is Pinus which is also of normal resin canals. Pinus can be divided into three subgenera, Haploxylon, Parry and Diploxylon, according to the presence or absence of dentation and warty layer in wood tracheids. 7. It is reasonable to place the genus Amentotaxus in the Taxaceae, because membrane of bordered pits in the genus is similar to that in the other four genera of the Taxaceae, both of the Araucaria type. 8. The present authors agree with Cheng’s (1978) treatment of Sect. Heopeuce in Tsuga, based on the fact that Tsuga longibracteata has traumatic resin canals and warty layer. Reducing Pinus hwangshanensis into P. taiwanensis, made by Cheng, is reasonable because of the similarities between P. hwangshanensis and P. taiwanensis in the wood structure. The establishment of a new subgenus, Patty, for Pinus bungeana is suitable based on chemotaxonomy, morphology and the distinct warty layer on the innersurface of wood tracheids.
  • Chen Wei-Pei, Zhang Si-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 415-422.
    Leaf anatomy of six genera was investigated. The petiole of Brasenia schreberi possesses a pair of bundles, the other five possess closed, scattered vascular bundles, resembling those of the Monocotyledons. True vessels are absent. Air passages are present in the ground tissue of the petiole except for Nuphar pumilum. Leaves are all dorsiventral. Stomatal apparatuses of the Ranunculaceous type are generally confined to the upper surface of the lamina, but fewer stomata are found on the lower surface of the lamina of Nelumbo nucifera. The stomatal apparatuses of Nelumbo nucifera are of the Haplocheilic type in development, but of the Ranunculaceous type at maturity. Hydathodes and sclerenchymatous idioblasts are present only in Nelumbo nucifera. Glandular hairs and hydropotens occur on the lower surface of the lamina in all the investigated species except Nelumbo nucifera. Astrosclereids are present in all the taxa except Brasenia schreberi and Nelumbo nucifera. According to observations we consider that the genus Brasenia is a primitive one in Nymphaeaceae and it has a close phylogenetic relationship with Cabomba. They may be treated as an independent family, Cabombaceae, which is better included in the order Nymphaeales. Nymphaea, Nuphar, Euryale and Victoria are closely related to one another and should be retained in the family Nymphaeaceae. Nelumbo shows, specialized features distinct from those of the rest of the Nymphaeaceae. It should be segregatednot only as a distinct family but also as a distinct order, Nelumboales.
  • Tao Jun-Rong, Zhang Chuan-Bo
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 423-426.
    Two fossil reproductive organs of early angiosperms were collected from the Yanji Basin, Jilin Province of China. The assemblage of fossil plants consist mainly of pteridophytes, gymnosperms and a few angiospoermms. The present paper only reports the two reproductive organs of angiosperms. They are Archimagnolia rostrato-stylosa sp. nov., Eucommioites orientalis sp.nov. The first is a slightly elongated floral axis(receptacle), with about 20 carpels helically arranged. The carpels are free from each other and attenuated into a beak-like structure at the apex, with the base inserted into the receptacle. A comparison with living plants indicated its close relationship with some members of the Magnoliaceae. The second is a samara, similar to a fruit of the genus Eucommia, narrow-oblong, 2-lobed at the apex with the lobes stigmatic on theinner side. The seed is situated at the middle of fruit, oblong in shape.
  • Liang Song-Yun, Dai Lun-Kai
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 427-437.
    In the present work, pollen grains of 3 species of Liriope, 24 species of Ophiopogon and 2 species of Peliosanthes were examined under scanning electron microscope, Among them 4 species were also observed under transmission electron microscope. The observation (Table 3)shows that Liriope and Ophiopogon distinctly differ from Peliosanthes in the exine ornamentation and structure, They may be divided into two types: 1. Rugulate-perforate, ektexine with perforate tectum in Liriope and Ophiopogon. 2. Verrucate, Verracae unequal in size, ektexine intectate in Peliosanthes. Pollen morphology shows the close affinity between Liriope and Ophiopogon, but they are very far from Peliosanthes. The correlation between pollen and gross morphology in Liriope, Ophiopogon and Peliosanthes are stated and their evolutionaly trends are discussed in this paper. The pollen characters support the placement of Liriope and Ophiopogon in one tribe—Ophiopogoneae, and Peliosanthes in another tribe—Peliosantheae. Peliosanthes is more advancedthan Liriope and Ophiopogon.
  • Shang Zong-Yan, Li Ru-Juan, Cui Tie-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 438-449.
    The karyotypes of 10 species of the Liliaceae from the Qinling Range are reported as follows. I. Polygonatum Mill. (1) P. odoratum ( Mill. ) Druce was found to have the karyotype 2n=20=12m+8sm ( Plate 3, Fig. I), which belongs to Stebbins’ (1971) karyotype classification 2B. The chromosomes range from 3.88 to 11.26μm in size. Table 2 shows the karyotypes and number fundamentals (N.F.) of 13 materials from 12 different localities. The N. F. of these materials can be classified into two groups: N.F. =36 and N.F.=40, besides one (N.F. =38) from Beijing. N. F. =36 covers all the materials with 2n= 18 which have relatively symmetrical karyotypes ( all consisting of m and sm chromosomes), one with 2n=20 (10m+6sm+4st) and one with 2n=22 (14m+8st). N.F. =40 include four materials with 2n= 20 (all of m and sm chromosomes ) and 3 with 2n= 22 (10m+ 8sm+ 4st). ¥ It is considered that there are two original karyotypes, 2n= 18 with N. F. = 36 and 2n= 20 with N.F. =40, which are relatively symmetrical. All the more asymmetrical karyotypes with some st chromosomes have probably evolved from the symmetrical karyotypes without st chromosomes by centric fission. (2) P. zanlanscianense Pamp. has the karyotype 2n=30=18m(2SAT) + 4sm+ 6st+ 2t (Plate 1, Fig. 1) which belongs to 2C. The chromosomes range from 2.16 to 9.76μm. ¥ II. Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don. The karyotype of this species is 2n = 16= 8m(2SAT )+ 6sm + 2st (Plate 1, Fig. 1 and Table 3 ) , which belongs to 2B. The chromosomes range from 2.33 to 5.30μm. Most species in Asparagus, including A.Filicinus, are reported to have basic number x= 10, and therefore 2n= 16 is a new chromosome number for A.filicinus. EL-Saded gave a report of n=8 for A. stipularis from Egypt, while Delay (1947) reported 2n = 24 for A. trichophyllus and A. verticillatus, Sinla(1972 ) gave a report of 2n=48 for A.racemosus. It is certain that there are two basic numbers in the genus Asparagus. III. Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino was found to have the karyotype 2n=24=4m+8st+12t (Plate 1, Fig. 1 ), which belongs to 3B. The chromosomes range from 8.71 to 20.24μm. IV. Smilax discotis Warb. was shown to have the karyotype 2n=32=4m+22sm+4st (2SAT)+2t (Plate 1, Fig. 1 and Table 3), which belongs to 3C. The first pair is much longer than others. The chromosomes range from 1.79 to 9.21μm. The chromosome number and karyotype of S. discotis are both reported for the first time. V. Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth is of the karyotype 2n=38=28m+10sm (Plate 2, Fig. 1 ), which belongs to 2B. The chromosomes range from 5.65 to 12.75μm. VI. Tupistra chinensis Baker was found to have the karyotype 2n=38=25m+ 13sm (Plate 2, Fig. 1), which belongs to 2B. The chromosomes range from 8.11 to 23.82μm. A pair of heterozygous chromosomes is arranged at the end of the idiogram. The eighth pair possesses an intercalary satellite. Huang et al. (1989) reported the karyotype of T. chinensis from Yunnan as 2n = 38 = 24m+ 14sm without any intercalary satellite. Nagamatsu and Noda (1970) gave a report on the karyotype of T. nutans from Bhutan, which consists of 18 pairs of median to submedian chromosomes and one pair of subterminal chromosomes. And one pair of submedian chromosomes possess intercalary satellites on their short arms. VII. Rohdea japonica (Thunb) Roth. was found to have the karyotype 2n=38=30m+6sm+2st ( Plate 2, Fig. 1), which belongs to 2B. The chromosomes range from 7.94 to 18.29μm. Nagamatsu and Noda (1970) reported that the karyotype of R.japonica from Japan was the same as that of Tupistra nutans from Bhutan. But we have not discov ered any chromosome with an intercalary satellite. VIII. Hosta Tratt. (1) H. plantaginea (Lam.) Aschers was shown to have 2n=60. The 60 chromosomes are in 30 pairs,which can be classified into 4 pairs of large chromosomes (7.32- 8.72μm ), 3 pairs of medium-sized ones (4.72-5.60μm), and 23 pairs of small ones (1.40-3.64μm), (Plate 3 ,Table 4 ). The karyotype of H. plantaginea is reported for the first time. (2) H. ventricosa (Salisb.) Stearn was counted to have 2n=120, The 120 chromosomes are in 60 pairs, which can be classified into 8 pairs of large chromosomes (7.00- 8.40μm ), 6 pairs of medium-sized ones(4.40- 6.15um ), 46 pairs of small ones (1.20- 3.85μm), (Plate 3, Table 4). Based on the karyotypes of H. plantaginea and H. ventricosa, the latter is probably a tetraploid in the genus Hosta. Kaneko (1968b) gave a report on the karyotype of H. ventricosa, which is of8 pairs of large chromosomes, 4 pairs of medium-sized and 48 pairs of small ones.
  • Yu Shi-Chun, Xiao Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 450-459.
    The plant chemotaxonomical marker of Fritillaria L. is discussed in this paper according to the information on chemical components. Plenty of evidence shows that 5α-cevanine isosteroidal alkaloids are the characteristic constituents of this genus. In the light of the biogensis of this kind of alkaloids, the C-13 and C- 17 of the molecular structures may be rational positions uniting a nitrogenous group in their biosyntheses which make two kinds of 5α-cevanine isosteroidal alkaloids, the dihydrogen of C- 13 and C- 17 being at the state of trans-configuration (e. g. verticine, verticinone) and at the state of cisconfiguration (e.g. delavine, chuanbeinone and songbeinine). Meanwhile, this paper reports the existence and content of some 5α-cevanine isosteroidal alkaloids in main Chinese fritillarias. This result reveals that there may be a relationship between the formation of characteristic constituents on one hand and other morphological characters and distribution of the plants concerned on the other,which encourages further investigation.
  • Lang Kai-Yong
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 460-470.
    In the present paper 11 genera and 16 species of the Orchidaceae are recorded form Xinjiang, of which five species are new records to Xinjiang andthree are new records to China.
  • Xia Nian-He
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 471-472.
    Based on the study of Chinese specimens, Pyrularia bullata Tam, P. inermis Chien and P. sinensis Wu are recognized as new synonyms of P. edulis ( Wall. ) A. DC. Dendrotrophe frutescens( Champ. ex Benth. ) Danser var.subquinquenervia(Tam )Tam is reduced to D. frutescens (Champ. ex Benth. ) Denser.
  • Chen Ling-Jing, Li Zhen-Yu, Hong De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 473-475.
    Triodanis Raf. (Campanulaceae), a genus native to America and Mediterranean regions, is here reported from China for the first time. Two species (T. perfoliata and T. bifiora) are identified. The former was collected in Chong’an,and Jianning, Fujian Province, the latter was collected from Anqing,Anhui Province, Putuo, Zhejiang Province and Jiangle, Fujian Province.
  • Pu Xu-Feng, Jia Min-Ru
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 478-480.
    One new species of the genus Cimicifuga (Ranunculaceae)is described from Sichuan Province, China. It is C. lancifoliolata X. F. Pu et M. R. Jia.
  • Wang Wen-Tsai, Li Zhen-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 481-481.
  • Chen Wei-Chiu
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(5): 482-486.
    Two new species and one new combination of the genus Psychotria Linn.from China are described and made , They are P.fluviatilis Chun, P.densa W.C.Chen and P.rubra (Lour.) Poir.var.pilosa (Pitard) W. C. Chen