Table of Contents
  • Volume 30 Issue 3

      
      Research Articles
    • Wu Cheng-Yih, Ku Tsue-Chih
      1992, 30 (3): 193–196
      A new tribe, Saniculiphylleae C.Y.Wu et Ku of the family Saxifragaceae (s. 1.) isdescribed from northwestern Guangxi and southeastern Yunnan, China.
    • Wang Wen-Tsai
      1992, 30 (3): 196–196
    • Geng Bao-Yin
      1992, 30 (3): 197–211
      An Early Devonian flora from the Pingyiqu Formation of northern Sichuan is described. It contains 13 species in 9 genera. They are Eogaspesiea gracilis, Uskiella sp., Zosterophyllum myretonianum, Z.yunnanicum, Z.sichuanense sp.nov., Oricilla unilateralis sp.nov., Hicklingia cf.edwardii, Psilophyton sp., Drepanophycus spinaetormis, D.spinosus, D.sp., Leclercqia complexa, and Sciadocillus cuneifidus gen.et sp.nov. The geologic range of the flora is inferred to be Siegenian (probably Upper Gedinnian-Siegenian). Sciadocillus gen.nov. (Marchantiales?) Diagnosis: Thalli flattened, composed of a central disc-like structure and radiating wedge-shaped unbranched lobes. Sporangium-like reproductive organs round to elliptic, attached to the upper surface and along the edges of the lobes. Spores trilete. Type species: Sciadocillus cuneifidus Sciadocillus cuneifidus sp.nov. Thallus, 4.2mm in diameter, consists of a central disc-like structure, about 1.0mm in diameter, bearing 14 unbranched lobes. Lobes wedge-shaped, 1.5-1.75mm long , 0.75-0.83mm wide at the apex and 0.25mm at the base. Sporangium-like reproductive organs round to elliptic, 0.45-0.50mm long and about 0.4mm wide, without stalks. Spores, spheroidal to subspheroidal, 20-40μm in diameter, trilete, exine smooth, sometimes folded. Holotype: Plate 7:53, 54 (counterpart). Locality: Approximately 800m, in northwest Yanmenba Village, Jiangyou, Sichuan. Horizon: Lower part of Pingyipu Formation (Upper Gedinnian-Siegenian). Zosterophyllum Penhallow (1892) (Zosterophyllaceae) Zosterophyllum sichuanense sp.nov. Plant with smooth axes at least 57mm long, 1.6-2.0mm wide, branching unknown. Fertile axes terminate in lax spikes, about 6.5mm wide; spikes with spirally arranged sporangia, three to four gyres. Sporangia borne on stalks, 2.7-3.9mm long and 0.54-0.81mm wide; stalks obliquely inserted on axis, gentely cured upwards, in profile often C-shaped with adaxial margins of sporangia; stalk contain vascular strand. Sporangia Fan-shaped, often folded in half and margins facing axis, almost triangular in side view, sometimes obovate in abaxial view; dehiscense not observed. Holotype: Plate 2:11. Paratype: Plate 2:10, 14. Locality: approximately 800m, northwest Yanmenba Village, Jiangyou, Sichuan. Horizon: Pingyipu Formation (Siegenian). Oricilla Gensel (1982) (Zosterophyllaceae) Oricilla unilateralis sp.nov. Plants erect. Naked axes at least 76mm long, 1.6-3.2mm wide, branching dichotomous with branching angles 30-60°in fertile regions. Sporangia borne laterally in one row on branches, located above bifurcation, oriented to inside of axis. Stalks not observed. Sporangia probably attached by an extremely short stalk to axis at right angle. Sporangia reniform to ellitical, 2.8-4.0mm wide (X=3.3mm), 2.0-2.5mm high (X =2.3mm) , composed of two equal valves, dehiscent along distal margin. Spores subcircular, trilete, 48-58μm, in diameter, smooth, with dark area at juncture of trilete rays. Surface covered with tapetal residue. Holotype: Plate 4: 28. Paratype: Plate 4: 30-32. Locality: Approximately 800 m northwest Yanmenba Village, Jiangyou, Sichuan. Horizon: Pingyipu Formation (Siegenian).
    • Li Zhong-Ming
      1992, 30 (3): 212–218
      This paper summarizes the history of classifications of Paleozoic seeds and revaluates the previous classification systems of Paleozoic detached seeds. The current status of studies on Paleozoic. gymnosperms: has been deteched seeds and whole fossil gymnosperms indicates that Seward’s classification system for Paleozoic seeds inadequate since all the seeds of Cardiocarpales in his system are not cordaitean female reproductive organs as Seward’s suggested. It is shown from investigations of whole fossil plants that the members of Cardiocarpales were derived from at least three different major groups of Paleozoic gymnosperms. Moreover, Meyen’s suggestion that the gymnosperms be classified based on symmetry of seeds has been little supported since all the fossil gymnosperms have not shown structurally preserved seeds and organic attachment. In order to relate detached seeds to whole fossil gymnosperms, the present author suggests that five families: Lagenostomaceae, Pachytestaceae, Callospermariaceae, Cryptospermaceae and Cardiocarpaceae be established for Paleozoic seeds and the Order Trigonocarpales be renamed as Pachytestales since the genus Trigonocarpus does not now include structurally preserved seeds. Thus, the five families may be considered either as subdivisions of the three orders of detached seeds: Lagenostomales, Pachytestales and Cardiocarpales, or as female reproductive organs of whole fossil gymnosperms of the five Permo-Carboniferous major groups: Lyginopteridales, Medullosales, Callistophytales Gigantopteridales and Cordaitales. A Key to Paleozoic seeds is provided as follows: A. Seeds with a cupule; integument thin, simple, deeply lobed and less differentiated;nucellus united to integument up to the base of pollen chamber; pollen chamber complex ................................. Lagenostomales, Lagenostomaceae A. Seeds without a cupule; integument thick, complex, unlobed and differentiated into several layers; nucellus free within integument except at the base; pollon chamber simple ................................................................................................ B B. Seeds radially symmetrical in shape; integumentary bundles present; nucellus bundles typical ................................................... Pachytestales, Pachytestaceae B. Seeds bilaterally symmetrical in shape; integumentary bundles present or absent; nucellus bundles often untypical .................................... C (Cardiocarpales) C. Bundles absent in integument; main bundle C-shaped in transverse section with a sclerenchyma bundle ............................................ Cryptospermaceae C. Bundles present in integument; main bundle not C-shaped in transverse section without a sclerenchyma bundle ......................................................... D D. Seeds very small with secretory cavities in integument; nucellus bundles limited in nucellus platform .......................................... Callospermariaceae D. Seeds large without secretory cavities in integument; nucellus bundles limited in nucellus platform or not ....................................... Cardiocarpaceae
    • Fang Wei, Tong Zai-Kang, Xu Shi-Liang
      1992, 30 (3): 219–225
      The peroxidase, estrase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase isozymes (POD. EST and GOT) in leaves of twenty-eight species belonging to 5 genera were analysed by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results show as follows: The zymograms of glutamic oxaiacetic transaminase isozyme are generally stable and therefore useful in distinguishing genera. The POD and EST isozymes vary among species and may be used as reference basis for distinguishing species. Based on the zymograms of three enzymes and similarty coefficients analysis, combined with classic systematic data authors suggest thatisoenzymatic data be valuable in solving some systematic problems of caespitose bamboos.
    • Hu Mei, Xiao Pei-Gen
      1992, 30 (3): 226–238
      Analysis of 16 flavonoids and 3 other phenols in 177 samples of the genus Rhododendron was carried out by HPTLC silica gel plate-stepwise development and polyamide thin layer. The result reveals that the presence of monoglycosides of quercetin is a general character of flavonoids in the Chinese rhododendrons; some taxa are characterized by presence or absence of certain glycosides; although myricetin, and gossypetin are generally rare in this genus, they are concentrated in some taxa, and therefore they are valuable in chemotaxonomy. The significance of quantitative and semi-quantitative assessment of chem-ical characters for chemotaxonomy of Rhododendron is also discussed.
    • Huang Yuan-Zheng, Chen Shu-Qun, He Chung-Ying, Chen Quan-You, Wu Yun-Lun
      1992, 30 (3): 239–244
      Citrus bergamia Risso. is a rare perfumery plant. Taxonomists have different views on the taxonomy of C. bergamia. Chemical components of leaf and peel essential oils from C. bergamia, and its close relatives, C. limon, C. aurantifolia and three varieties of C. aurantium, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The analytical result shows that the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils from C. bergamia are basically the same as those from three varieties of C. aurantium. Their main components are linalool (29.19-39.75% )and linalyl acetate (24.73-30.24% )etc., and contents of other components are also similar. But their peel essential oils are different. The peel essential oils from C. bergamia contain less limonene (29.94%) than those from C. aurantium (92.55-94.31% ) and less beta-pinene (3.00%) and y-terpinene(3.48% )than those from C. limon or C. aurantifolia (respectiyely 9.16% and 10.42% ) . The peel essential oils from C. bergamia contain not only as much linalool (22.20%) and linalyl acetate (32.66%)as those in the leaf essential oils from C. aurantium, but also as much limonene(29.94% )as that in the peel essential oils from C. limon or C. aurantifolia . The contents of limonene are close to those of the essential oils from C. aurantifolia. This result shows that C. bergamia may be a natural hybrid between C.aurantium and C. aurantifolia, as proposed by Sinclair W. B.
    • Zhang Xian-Chun
      1992, 30 (3): 245–255
      The present paper deals with the taxonomy of the subgenus Athyrium; 15 species are recognized from Yunnan. Based on the system of Ching & Y. T. Hsieh (1986), two series (ser. Dissitifolia X. C. Zhang and ser. Wallichiana X. C. Zhang) are described as new. As a result of morphological study of all the type specimens preserved in PE, KUN and PYU and observation made in the field by the author, 12 species and one hybrid of China (mainly from Yunnan Province)published in recent years are reduced to synonyms, to various species. Moreover, Athyrium brevisorum Moore and A. pachyphlebium C. Chr. are considered as new synonyms of A. niponicum (Mett.)Hance also. According to the international code of botanical nomenclature, the name Athyrium fimbriatum Moore which was used in the recent literature is only a nomen nudum and should be substituted by Athyrium foliolosum Moore ex Sim. The latter was published effectively by Sim in his 《A priced catalogue with brief descriptions and cultural remarks etc. of ferns grown for sale by Robert Sim.》Since Beddome in his 《Supplement to the ferns of British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula》 added the description erroneously to Athyrium fimbriatum as “rootstock creeping, stipes solitary distant”, some authors concerning ferns of Indian Subcontinent and the Himalayas (Hope 1902, Bir & Shukla 1966, etc. )have confused this species of Athyrium with Pseudocystopteris atkinsonii (Bedd.)Ching or P. andersonii (Clarke) Ching in the same region.
    • Chen Sing-Chi, Tsi Zhan-Huo
      1992, 30 (3): 256–262
      The present paper attempts to deal with chinese species of Pelexia, Flickingeria, Sedirea and Hygrochilus, which are little known to Chinese botanists and not included in “A Dictionary of the Families and Genera of Chinese Seed Plants” (2nd edition, 1984). Pelexia is a tropical American genus with one species, P. obliqua, found in Asia, which was discovered by J. J. Smith in Bogor and named Spiranthes obliqua in 1910. No further record of its occurrence was known until S. Y. Hu and G. Barretto published a new Hongkong plant named Manniella hongkongensis in 1976, which was considered by L. A. Garay in 1980 as conspecific with what J. J. Smith published in 1910. We agree with Garay in treating the species as a member of Pelexia, and consider it as exotic rather than indigenous to Asia due to its rareness and limited occurrence in Bogor and Hongkong. Flickingeria was published by A. D. Hawkes in the mimeographed journal “The Orchid Weekly” in January of 1961 to serve as a substitute for the rejected name Desmotrichum Blume. Five months later, however, for the same plant another new name Ephemerantha was published by P. F. Hunt and V. S. Summerhayes in “Taxon” together with a footnote from the authors claiming that Flickingeria was not effectively published because the journal was only mimeographed and not printed. Although Ephemerantha was generally accepted in China, we agree with R. K. Brummitt in considering Flickingeria to be an effectively pubfished name. This genus is represented in China by four species, of which F. albopurpurea and F. angustifolia are newly recorded. Sedirea was established by L. A. Garay and H. R. Sweet in 1974 for Aeridesjaponica Lindenb. et Rchb. f. , which was then known from Japan and Korea and now also from China. The second species, S. subparishii, was reported from China recently, which was a transfer from Hygrochilus. Of interest is the occurrence of S. japonica in southwest of Yunnan bordering on Burma and not in any other part of China. Though we thought that the Yunnan plant might be distinct from Japanese one, we failed to differentiate them from each other. Hygrochilus is an addition to Chinese orchid flora. Although the genus was reported to be found in China in 1982, it was based on Hygrochilus subparishii Tsi, which was transferred to Sedirea in 1985. The genus was established by E. Pfitzer for Vanda parishii, which was found in Burma and recently also in Thailand. The Chinese specimens listed here were collected by C. W. Wang in southern Yunnan in June 1936. No further collection has been known since then. Vanda parishil was published by H. G. Reichenbach in Xenia Orchidaceae in 1868, but many authors, such as J. D. Hooker and E. Pfitzer, mistook its authors for Veitch and Rchb. f. For example, the literature cited by J. D. Hooker for Vanda parishii in Flora of British India (6:51.1890) is “Gard. Chron. 1867: 180”, but we found on that page not “Vanda parishii” but “ Vanda bensoni Veitch et Rchb. F. ”. In addition, a redescription of Vanda parishii by H. G. Reichenbach himself was found on page 890 (1870)in the same literature, in which the author name of Vanda parishii is “Rchb. F.” instead of “Veitch et Rchb. f. ”. In addition to the account of these genera and some species, keys to Chinese species ofFlickingeria and Sedirea are provided.
    • Pan Ze-Hui, Yao Gan, Sheh Meng-Lan
      1992, 30 (3): 263–267
      Two new species of the family Umbelliferae are described from Southeastern Xizang of China. They are Pimpinella nyingchiensis Z. H. Pan et G. Yao and Ligusticum xizangense Z. H. Pan et Sheh.
    • Gao Ya-Hui, Cheng Zhao-Di, Jin De-Xiang (T. G. Chin)
      1992, 30 (3): 273–276
      Minidiscus trioculatus, M. comicus and M. chilensis are new records for China, and M. subtilis, is a new species. They differ from Thalassiosira species by their strutted processes and one single labiate process being distant from valve margin and they differ from each other by their areola patterns on valves and distribution patterns of strutted processes and the labiate process. A key to the species of Minidiscus is given. Minidiscus subtilis Gao, Cheng et Chin sp. nov., figs 7-8 Valves disc-shaped, slightly concave in center, weakly silicified, 3.5-5.5μm in diameter. Areola unequally radiate-striate, striae 8.5 / lμm. A narrow valve mantle without striae. Three strutted processes and a single labiate process located in the central area of the valve. Among them, one strutted process in the very center with the other two adjacent to it, forming an isometric triangle with the labiate process between the two subcentral strutted processes. Two small satellite pores in each base of the strutted processes. M. subtilis differs from M. chilensis mainly by their radiate striae continuously distributed from the valve center tothe margin.
    • Yu Shi-Chun, Xiao Pei-Gen
      1992, 30 (3): 277–278
      F. sulcisquamosa is slightly different from F. unibracteata in pollen morphology and differs external-morphologically from the latter in lacking trellised spots inside tepals. Therefore the former is reduced to a variety of the latter. F. puqiensis is found very similar to F. thunbergii both in pollen morphology and gross morphology. The former is different fromthe latter in geographical distribution and thus reduced to a variety of the latter.
    • Xiong Zhi-Ting, Hong De-Yuan, Chen Rui-Yang
      1992, 30 (3): 279–288
      Proposed in this paper is a quantitative method which can be effectively used for measuring karyotype asymmetry of chromosome complements. As well known, karyotype symmetry of a complement is determined by arm ratios and relative lengths. We define the karyotype as a theoretical symmetrical karyotype in which all chromosome ann ratios are 1 and all chromosomes are equal in length. An observed complement can be assumed to have a corresponding theoretical symmetrical karyotype, and different complements with the same ploidy and the same basic number share a common theoretical symmetrical karyotype. Therefore, to measure the karyotype asymmetry of an observed complement only requires determining the differences in both arm ratios and relative lengths between the observed karyotype and its corresponding theoretical symmetrical karyotype. Based on this idea, and employing absolute value distance to measure the difference in symmetry two formulas for measuring asymmetry respectively in arm ratio and relative length are developed as follows: Here r is arm ratio (long / short); Lis relative length (long+short); k is ploidy; x is basic chromosome number; m is the number of homologous chromosomes by which both mean r and mean Late caculated, and L is the total length of a complement. D, and Dt are called arm ratio asymmetry coefficient and length asymmetry coefficient respectively. If the complements concerned have the same basic number, their karyotype asymmetry can be compared by their Dc and D~ values; the greater the D, and Dt values are, the more asymmetrical the karyotype is. When Dc = 0 and Dt = 0, the karyotype is theoretical symmetrical one. In other cases, where basic numbers compared are different, we can use Dc and Ut instead of De and Dt: In investigations on karyotype divergence between populations and chromosome evolution in a group, a plot of two dimensions, De and Dt, is easily used tn show relationships between any two chromosome complements in respect of karyotype asymmetry. Before making a plot, both D, and Dt values are standardized becaues De values are usually different from Dt in order of magnitude. In this paper, normalization is employed, with the mean being zero and square deviation being I of the standardized data set. Three examples, where karyotype data (arm ratios and relative lengths)were pubhshed earlier, are analysed in order to test the validity and sensitivity of the present method. The results are quite satisfactory. Example 1: Karyotype divergence among populations of Streptolirion volubile ssp. volubile(Commclinaceae). Dc and Dt values of five populations, one from Beijing, one from Tibet, two from Yunnan, China, and one from Japan, are calculated. Two-dimension plot (Fig.l) shows that the Japanese population is less asymmetrical than the four Chinese populations. Among the Chinese populations, the two from Yunnan are quite similar to each other in karyotype asymmetry, while they are somewhat different from Beijing and Tibet populations. These results clearly demonstrate that the karyotype di vergence among different populations has taken place though they cannot be distinguished by Levan's karyotype formula and Stebbins' 12-type system. Therefore, the present method is valid and sensitive, and is specially useful fin those cases, where karyotype differences between chromosome complements are too small to be recognized by other methods. Example 2: Homology between Triticum and Aegilops. The karyotype divergence trend within Triticum is distinct in Dt direction (Fig.2), with tetraploid species distributed in the 3rd quadrant and hexaploid in the 2nd quadrant. For Aegilops, karyotype divergence trend in Dt is not as obvious as that in Dc direction. It is interesting to note that the investigated chromosome complements of Aegilops with C genome are usually separated from those of Triticum, while those without C genome but with S or D genome are located within or near Triticum distribution area (Fig.2). This result might indicate that C genome of Aegilops has not been introduced into Triticum, but S and D genomes are closely related to Triticum genome constitution. Example 3: Karyotype evolution in the Taxodiaceae. Karyotype asymmetrization in the Taxodiaceae has taken place in both Dc and Dt directions. ( Fig.3 ) Cryptomeria fortunei is characterized by the most symmetrical karyotype among the taxa studied. The karyotypes of Taxodium and Metasequoia are more asymmetrical than that of Cryptomeria. In contrast, Cunninghamia and Taiwania have the most asymmetrical karyotypes in the family. This trend of karyotype asymmetry divergence coincides with the generally recognized phylogenetic pattern of the family. The conclusion is thatkaryotype of the Taxodiaceae has evolved from symmetrical to asymmetrical type.

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Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
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Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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