Table of Contents
  • Volume 29 Issue 5

      
      Research Articles
    • Pu Fa-Ting
      1991, 29 (5): 385–393
      Ligusticum is a highly specialized genus in the tribe Ammineae Koch of the subfamily Apioideae. It is transitional between the tribe Ammineae Koch and the tribe Peucedaneae DC., and shows a very close affinity to the genus Selinum. In the present paper, the taxonomic history is reviewed; the external morphology, pollen morphology and geographic distribution are analysed, and its evolutionary tendencies are discussed. In addition, a key to the 34 species is provided, and economic uses reported in the literature are summarized. Ligusticum consists of over 60 species widely distributed in Eurasia and North America; the genus is typically temperate. There are two principal distribution centers, one in the Himalayas, including the Hengduan Mountains of western China, and the other in North America. Thirty-four species occur in China, most of which are distributed in the alpine belt of south-western China, with only a few species occurring in northern China. They usually grow in alpine thicket meadows or in alpine meadows. Among them are 28 species endemic to China, 4 of which are described as new in the present paper, i. e. L.yuayuanense, L.litanense, L.filifolium, and L.yunnanense. L.elatum (Edgew.) C. B. Clarke, a species of India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and L. thomsonii C.B.Clarke var. evolutior C. B. Clarke, of India, Pakistan and Kashmir, are reported from China for the first time. Some species are important in traditional Chinese medicine, for example, L. sinense Oliv., L. sinense Oliv. cv. Chuanxiong, L. sinense Oliv. cv. Fuxiong, L. delavayi Franch., L. jeholense (Nakai et Kitagawa) Nakai et Kitagawa, L. tachiroei (Franch. et Sav.) Hiroe et Constance, etc. The genus Tilingia was established by Regel in 1858, based on Tilingia ajanensis. The chief characters of the genus are distinct calyx teeth and carpels bearing a solitary vitta in each furrow. However, these characters do not differentiate Tilingia from Ligusticum, so that Tilingia was transferred to Ligusticum by Kozo-Poljansky in 1916. Tilingia tachiroei (Franch. et Sav.) Kitagawa was transferred to Ligusticum by Hiroe et Constance in 1958. Shan et Sheh in “F1. Reip. Pop. Sin.” Tom. 55 supported the treatment by Kozo-Poljansky and Hiroe and Constance The genus Ligusticopsis was separated from Ligusticum by Leute in 1969, based on the prominent calyx teeth of the former. Ligusticopsis included 14 species, all confined to China. But this genus has not been accepted by any other botanists since its establishment. The subdivision of Ligusticum in this paper is based mainly on the characters of involucel bracteoles and mericarps, combined with the shape and aperture types of pollen grains. The genus is divided into the following two sections. Sect.1 Ligusticum, Bracteoles linear or lanceolate, entire; mericarps slightly lateral-compressed to slightly dorsal-compressed; vittae solitary to numerous in each furrow; leaf-segments ovate, lanceolate, or linear; pollen grains mainly rhomboidal or ellipsoidal; apertures gonitreme. Sect. 2 Pinnatibracteola Pu. Bracteoles 1-3-pinnatisect or 2-3-lobed at apex; mericarps dorsal-compressed; vittae usually numerous in each furrow; leaf-segments usually linear, rarely ovate or lanceolate; pollen grains rectangular, elongate-rhomboidal, or equatorially constricted; apertures mainly peritreme, rarely gonitreme or intermediate.
    • Shih Chu
      1991, 29 (5): 394–417
      Dealt with in the present paper is a comparatively complex group of plants with an outermost ring of short pappus at the apex of achenes in the tribe Lactuceae of Compositae from the Sino-Himalayan Region. The group includes plants with rostrate achenes and those with achenes non-rostrate, neither broadened, nor thickened or both broadened and thickened margins as well as those with both heads polyanthous and plants with heads reduced to only 3 florets. The previous taxonomical treatments of the complex group may be considered unnatural. These non-Lactuca plants were treated either as members of the genus Lactuca, or as those of the genus Cicerbita. In order to provide a clear and natural classification for these extremely complex group of plants from the Sino-Himalayan Region, it is first necessary to clear up the concept of the genus Cicerbita. Cicerbita, as a genus, was separated from Lactuca and established by Wallarth as early as in 1822 based on Lactuca alpina etc., but its circumscription was unclear at the beginning. In his concept, Cicerbita covers not only plants with rostrate achenes, but also plants non-rostrate achenes. The concept of Cicerbita had not been clear until its lectotype was chosen. That is to say, only those plants with combination of non-rostrate achenes and an outermost ring of short pappus at the apex of achenes in the tribe Lactuceae can be regarded as the members of the genus Cicerbita. Such a concept of Cicerbita deffers not only from the one of B. Beauverd, who placed genera, such as Mycelis Cass., Mulgedium Cass., Steptorhamphus Bunge and Cephalorrhynchus Boiss., into Cicerbita respectively as section, but also from the one of G. L. Stebbins, who also used strict concept of Cicerbita. On the basis of the concept of Cicerbita mentioned above, through identification of specimens with an outermost ring of short pappus of the tribe Lactuceae in the Herbarium of Institude of Botany, Academia Sinica, recognized are four species from China in the genus, i. e. Cicerbita oligolepis Chang, sp. nov., C. tianschanica (Rgl. et Schmalh.) Beauverd, C. azurea (Ledeb.) Beauverd and C. sikkimensis (Hook. f.) Shih. With the concept of Cicerbita thus defined the related group of plants from the Sino-Himalayan Region can now be further treated. One of them, like the plants of Cicerbita, has an outermost ring of short pappus at the apex of achenes also, but by its Achenes with broadened and thickened margin, acute or acuminate, extending into a rostrum at its apex, the group differ not only from Cicerbita with erostrate achenes, but also from Lactuca without an outermost ring of short pappus at apex of achenes. Unfortunately, some species in the group of the Sino-Himalayan Region were placed in the genus Lactuca by predicessors. In fact, This is a new genus, Chaetoseris Shih. The genus Chaetoseris Shih seems to be more similar to Cephalorrhynchus Boiss with achenens neither broadened, nor thickened along its margins than to Cicerbita Wallr. All of 18 species of Chaetoseris Shih are distributed in the Sino-Himalayan Region. They are Chaetoseris grandiflora (Franch.) Shih, Ch. dolichophylla Shih, Ch. leiolepis Shih, Ch. taliensis Shih, Ch. macrantha (C. B. Clarke) Shih, Ch. ciliata Shih, Ch. hastata (Wall. ex DC.) Shih, Ch. cyanea (D. Don) Shih, Ch. macrocephala Shih, Ch. lyriformis Shih, Ch. hispida Shih, Ch. roborowskii (Maxim.) Shih, Ch. likiangensis (Franch.) Shih, Ch. sichuanensis Shih, Ch. pectiniformis Shih, Ch. lutea (Hand. -Mazz.) Shih, Ch. rhombiformis Shih and Ch. yunnanensis Shih Another group of Compositae which is represented by Lactuca graciliflora Wall. ex DC. etc. and distributed in the Sino-Himalayan Region, and has an outermost ring of short pappus at the apex of achenes, evidently should not be regarded as the members of Lactuca. With a combination of usually fine cylindrical, calyculate involucres, 3 phyllaries arranged in 1 row, and heads with 3 florets and achenes broadened and thickened along its margins the group should be regarded as a new genus, Stenoseris Shih. This new genus seems to be similar to Mycelis Cass., with achenes neither broadened, nor thickened along its margins and yellow florets rather than to Chaetoseris Shih. Stenoseris Shih, distributed in the Sino-Himalayan Region, has five species. They are St. graciliflora (Wall. ex DC.) Shih, St. taliensis (Franch.) Shih, St. tenuis Shih, St. leptantha Shih and St. triflora Chang. On the basis of the concept of Cicerbita, the present author provides in this paper a revision for plants in the Sino-Himalayan Region previously placed in Lactuca. In this sense, the present paper can be regarded as a continuation of “REVISION OF LACTUCA L. AND TWO NEW GENERA OF TRIBE LACTUCEAE (COMPOSITAE) ON THE MAINLAND OF ASIA” published in ActaPhytotaxonomica Sinica before.
    • Zhong Guang-Yan, Ye Yin-Min
      1991, 29 (5): 418–422
      The acidic peroxidase isozymes in petals of 106 Citrus and Fortunella species and cultivars were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results (Fig. 1; Tables 1 and 2) suggest that these isozymes be of the monomeric nature coded by a single locus. Five alleles were identified and designated as A, B, C, D and F respectively. No genetic difference in peroxidase isozymes was detected among the mandarins orignated from China, Japan and Indian. Man Ju may be a hybrid between Ponkan and Ougan. Ponkan may have not been involved in the origin of Jiao Gan. Zheng Jiang Jin Ju should be an infraspecific hybrid of C. reticulata. C. sinensis has a close relationship with some Chinese mandarins. Changshou Kumquat and Calamondin are shown to be intergeneric hybrids between Citrus andFortunella.
    • Gu De-Xing, Hsu Ping-Sheng
      1991, 29 (5): 423–430
      Pinellia ternata (Thunb.)Breit. (Araceae)is a perennial herb widely distributed in East Asia. It is common in the suburbs of Nanjing. Recently, another species of the same genus has been found in a Nanjing suburb. It resembles P. ternata in general appearance, but never possesses terrestrial bulbils which are characteristic of that species. Morphologically, it is more similar to P. yaoluopingensis X. M. Guo et X. L. Liu, a new species recently found in Anhui, than to P. ternata. The present paper deals with a comparative study of the variation pattern of two entities at the population level in order to elucidate their biological relationships. The following research work was carried out: (1)field investigation of the population sites; (2)mass sampling of natural populations for quantitative analysis, two populations (Population I & II) for P. ternata and one (Population III) for P.yaoluopingensis, aff.; (3) SEM observation of pollen grains; (4)examination of somatic chromosome numbers. As a result of the above observations, it was found that: I. Measurements of the quantitative morphological characters (Table 1 & 2) show that Population III differs remarkably from Populations I & II, but matches the original description of P.yaoluopingensis except for its lacking of small tubers. SEM micrographs of pollen grains (Plate 1 )show that Populations I & II are very similar to each other, but different from Population III both in morphology and in size. The overall morphological relationships among these three populations are shown in Fig. 2. II. The habitats of Populations I & II, though rather different in moisture and light conditions, are similar with respect to human disturbance, and quite different from that of Population III. Pinellia ternata shows some weedy characteristics. It occurs in hedgegrows and shady man-made groves. The vigorous vegetative reproduction by terrestrial bulbils producing clones of P.ternata has evidently anabled the plant become successfully adapted to its varied environments. III. Cytological investigation shows that both somatic chromosome numbers of Populations I & II (P.ternata) are 2n = 72 (Plate 2-1 & 2), inconsistent with all previous records (2n=28, 115, 116, 128). It appears to be an aneupolyploid. The chromosome number of Population III (P.yaoluopingensis, aff.)is 2n=26 (Plate 2-3). It is probably a diploid. Two problems deserve further study: (a) Is Population III identical with Pinellia yaoloupingensis or a new variation form of that species? (b) Has P. ternata originatedfrom the outbreeding P. yaoloupingensis?
    • Pan Ze-Hui, Liu Xin-Tian, Sheh Meng-Lan, Xu Lang-Ran
      1991, 29 (5): 431–438
      Nearly 32 species of Angelica occur in China, taking up one third of total species number of the genus in the world, with 12 species in Sichuan. In the present paper karyotypes of 8 species from Sichuan are first reported with x = 11. The parameters of chromosomes of 8 species are given in Table 1 and the karyotypes are shown in Plate 1, 2. The karyotype formulae are as follows: A. valida Diels K(2n) =22=20m+2sm (Wulong Xian, alt. 1900m); A. dielsii Boiss. K(2n) =22= 18m+2smsat+2sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 3000m); A. laxifoliata Diels has 2 kinds of karyotypes in 3 populations: K(2n) =22= 18m+4sm (Hanyuan Xian, alt. 1900m) and K(2n) =22= 16m+6sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 2500m and Baoji in Shaanxi, alt. = 1500m); A. setchuensis Diels K (2n) = 22 = 16m+2smsat+4sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 2800m); A. maowenensis Yuan et Shan K(2n) =22= 16m+ 6sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 2800); A. chinghaiensis Shan ex K.T.Fu K (2n) = 4x= 44 = 36m+8sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 3500m); A. Sinensis (Oliv.)Diels K(2n) =22= 14M+8sm (Songpan Xian, alt. 2900m); A. omeiensis Yuan et Shan K (2n) = 22 = 10m+2sm+ 10st (Mt. Omei, alt. 2100m). The karyotypes of A. valida and 2 populations of A. laxifoliata belong to “1A” and those of one population of A. laxifoliata and the rest 6 species “2A”. By analysing the correlation between the karyotypic symmetry and vertical distribution of A. laxifoliata and A. chinghaiensis, it is considered that as altitude rises, the karyotypic asymmetry and ploidy increases. Comparing with the karyotypes of other species distributed in Northeastern China and Japan previously reported, the karyotype of A. valida with oblong-ovoid fruits and 1-2-pinnate leaves is most primitive and that of A. omeiensis with nearly rounded fruits and 3-ternate-pinnate leaves is most advanced in Angelica. Based on the fact that many species including the most primitive and the most advanced species are concentrated in Sichuan, it may be suggested that the center of origin and diversity of Angelica be inSichuan characterized.
    • Pan Kai-Yu, Lu An-Ming, Wen Jie
      1991, 29 (5): 439–444
      Euptelea Sieb. et Zucc. is a genus of 2 species, endemic to East Asia and disjunctly distributed in China and Japan. The present paper deals with cytology and embryology of the Chinese species E.pleiospermum Hook. f. et Thoms., providing materials for discussing the classificatory rank and relationships of the genus. This work reports the chromosome number, n = 14 and 2n = 28 (Plate 1: 1, 2), for E.pleiospermum, which is consistent with that of the Japanese species, E. plyandra Sieb. et Zucc.,reported by Sugiure (1931) and Whitaker (1933). This number is different from those of the related genera, i. e. n=20 or 2n=40 in Trochodendron and 2n = 48(46)in Tetracentron (Cronquist, 1981), and, therefore, the cytological evidence supports the treatmemt of the genus as a separate family by Smith (1945, 1946), Chrlotte and Bailey (1946), Cronquist(1981), Thorne (1983), Dahlgren(1983), Wang (1984). The ovule of E. pleiospermum is anatropous, bitegminous and crassinucellate (Plate 1: 10), the characters which have been already reported by Davis (1966). In addition, the present work shows that in E. pleiospermum the tapetum is glandular, consisting of 2-or 4-nucleate tapetal cells; cytokinesus at meiosis of pollen mother cells is simultaneous; microspore tetrads are mainly tetrahedral; pollen grains are 2-celled (Plate 1: 4, 5, 6, 9), the third megaspore from the micropyle is functional and develops into the Polygonum type of embryo sac, and synergids are of a wide-openly dichotomous filiform apparatus (Plate 2: 14, 18;Fig. 1:4,6). These are the characters reported here for the first time. Due to the lack of embryological da-ta for the related families, it is impossible to make a systematic comparison of embryology.
    • He Chao-Xing, Hsu Ping-Sheng
      1991, 29 (5): 445–451
      The pollen morphology of 26 species and 5 hybrids of the genus Malus was investigated with aid of SEM. It is found that the pollen morphology of Malus is rather similar in shape, size, position and number of aperture and exine sculpture. The characters of polle morphology of sections and series are as follows: Sect. Malus Ser. Baccatae: Striae regular, parallel to colpi, and conjunct at pole; Ser. Pumilae: the same as in Ser. Baccatae, but more or less curved near pole. Sect. Docyniopes: Striae regular and parallel to colpi, but bent near pole. Sect. Chloromeles: Striae irregular, dense and interlock. Sect. Sorbormalus: Striae irregular, sparse and not interlock. Ser. Sieboldiance: pollen grains prolate, with perforation among striae, colpi narrow; Ser. Kansuenses: Pollen grains spheroidal, colpi wide in the middle but narrow at both ends, striae relatively dense and regular, mostly dichotomous, perforation present; Ser. Yunnanenses; Pollen grain spheroidae, colpi wide in the middle but narrow at both ends, striae obviously irregular, less dichotomous, perforation absent. The major evolutionary trend of exine sculpture of pollen may be from densely thin-striate to sparsely striate with perforation. Characters of the exine sculpture of hybrids can be used to recognize the rela-tionship between the parental species.
    • Chen Rui-Yang, Zong Wei-Xing
      1991, 29 (5): 452–455
      This paper reports the chromosome numbers of 74 species of scattered bamboos growing in China, 65 of which are first reported.
    • Wang Wen-Tsai
      1991, 29 (5): 456–468
      One variety of Eranthis, four species of Delphinium, one species of Anemone, and two species and one variety of Clematis are described as new. The distribution of Anemone reflexa Steph. in western part of Henan Province is reported for the first time. The morphological variation of the inflorescence of Clematis armandii Franch.is elucidated, andaccording to it Clematis hefengensis G.F.Tao is reduced to a variety of C.armandii Franch.
    • Sheh Meng-Lan, Liu Xin-Tian, Liu Zheng-Yu
      1991, 29 (5): 469–473
      Two new species of the genus Sanicula (Umbelliferae), S. pengshuiensis Sheh etZ.Y.Liu and S. oviformis X.T.Liu et Z.Y.Liu, are described from Sichuan Province, China.
    • Zhang Ding-Cheng, Shao Jian-Zhang
      1991, 29 (5): 474–476
      Two new species of the Liliaceae are described from Anhui Province, China. i. e. Fritillaria qimenensis D. C. Zhang et J. Z. Shao and Lilium anhuiense D. C. Zhang et J. Z.Shao.
    • Zhou Shou-Biao, Guo Xin-Hu
      1991, 29 (5): 477–478
    • Fu Hua-Long
      1991, 29 (5): 479–480
      In this paper a new species of Nitella, N. vermiformis, from Sichuan is reported. The new species is the similar to Nitella procera Han from Yunnan. But gametangia of the latter grow in every furcte, and fertile branchlets are similar to sterile ones. There are not central radial branchlets and accessory branchlets in first furcate branchlet; the membrane ofoospore is vermiform-processed.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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