Table of Contents
  • Volume 29 Issue 3

      
      Research Articles
    • Chen Shu-Kun
      1991, 29 (3): 193–229
      The present paper deals with the history of taxonomy, groos morphology, pollen morphology, distribution, system and taxonomic treatment of the genus Polygala L. from China. Three subgenera, 4 sections, 41 species and 8 varieties are recognized in this treatment, of which 2 sections are described as new. The system of Chinese species of Polygala L. is proposed as follow: Subgen. 1. Chamaebuxus (DC.)Duchartre (Typus: Polygala chamaebuxus L.) Sect. 1. Arillus S. K. Chen, sect. nov. (Typus: Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don). This section consists of about 20 species, distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa, with 7 species found in South China. Subgen. 2. Pseudosemeiocardium (Adema) J. Chetek et B. Krisa( Typus: Polygala furcata Royle). Sect. 1. Villososperma C. Y. Wu et S. K. Chen (Typus: Polygala wattersii Hance ). There are 3 species in this section, distributed in S. China and N. Vietnam. Sect. 2. Saxicola S. K. Chen, sect.nov. (Typus: Polygala saxicola Dunn). This section consists of 8 species, among which P. tricornis Gagnep. and P. saxicola Dunn are distributed in both Vietnam and China, and the other 6 species are endemic to China. Sect. 3. Pseudosemeiocardium ( Typus: Polygala furcata Royle). This section consists of about 7 species, distributed in SW China, extending from Indo-China Peninsula, southward to Malay, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea, westward to the southern slope of the Himalayas and N. India, northward to Japan. Subgen. 3. Polygala (Typus: Polygala vulgaris L. ). 400 species or more belong to this cosmopolitan subgenus. Most species are found in America and Africa, with 18 species discovered in China. Taxonomic evidence: The characters of flowers, fruits and seeds, the indumentum of seeds and presence or absence of caruncles are stable and also correlated with one another. There is a certain combination of the above-mentioned characters in a given group, which provide reliable evidence for the infrageneric division. A good example is the Polygala arillata group, grown under the tropical and subtropical forests, which has large, yellow flowers, with sepals fallen after blossom. The flower has carinas with a cristate appendix, which is of 2-9 long narrow pieces. The seeds are spherical, with a hooded caruncle. Its fruits are of annuloid stripes. (Fig. 1). The Polygala tenuifolia Willd. group, cosmopolitan in distribution, has a middle-sized, purple or yellow flower with persistent sepals. Cristate appendix of carina is usually fimbricate. The seed in the group is oblong or subovoid, with a trilobate caruncle. Carpels of the fruits of this group are without annuloid stripes(Fig. 3). The third group, Polygala saxicola group, is between the two as indicated above. The group has a small, yellow or occasionally purplecolored flower, with sepals fallen after blossom or sometimes with a persistent outer sepal. The cristate appendix of carina is lamellar or cucullate. The seed of the group is sometimes with pubescences and hooded caruncles sometimes with hirtoselike villoses and no caruncle (Fig. 2) pollen morphology and systematic treatments: The pollen morphology of the domestic Polygala seems to support division of Polygala L. into three groups as follows: A. Pollen grains subspheroidal, 10-19-colpate, colpi usually rather wide, relatively psilate in the polar area; B. Pollen grains reniform, 22-26-colpate, sculptural in the polar area; C. Pollen grains long-spheroidal or subspheroidal, 9- 23-colpate, with long and deep colpi, which usually extend to the relatively psilate polar area. The pollen morphology is naturally correlated with the morphology of flowers, fruits and seeds. Based on these, three subgenera and four sections no subdivision in Subgen. Polygala)are recognized.
    • You Jun, Sun Xiang-Zhong, Wang Hui-Qin
      1991, 29 (3): 230–234
      Najas graminea is first reported to have a population of 2n = 12. A cytogeographic survey of this species reveals that the diploid (2n= 12) population is so far only found in Yunnan (You Jun 8804, in Herb. WH) and its adaptive radiation has probably resulted in the distribution pattern of N. graminea today in Asia. The polyploids are more widely distributed than the diploid, but no correlation was found between polyploids and geographic distribution, soil or climate types. The comparison of the karyotypes between diploid and hexaploid, lack of inter-specific hybridization in nature, and the occurrence of semi-cryptic polyploids in the populations suggest that polyploids of N. graminea are the result of autopolyploidy (at least in China). The highest polyploidy (almost 17X), the most asymmetrical karyotype, and the most reduced floral structure (the spathe is absent) support the suggestion that theN. graminea be the most advanced taxon in Najas.
    • Wang Ping-Li, Pu Fa-Ting, Ma Jian-Sheng
      1991, 29 (3): 235–245
      The genus Ligusticum (Umbelliferae)consists of over 60 specics. So far found are 34 species in China. In the present paper pollen morphology of 25 species of Ligusticum were investigated. Among them only L.scothicum L.is not distributed in China, but in the Soviet Union, Korea, Japan and North America. Pollen grains of all the species were examined by LM, SEM and four species examined under TEM. Seventeen species are palynologically reported here for the first time. Based on our observation and data from other authors the shape of pollen grains in Ligusticum may be divided into four types: (1)Rhomboidal, P/E 1.14-1.87; colpi slender; pores goniotreme, rectangular, protruding; exine 2-layered, nearly equal in thickness, columellae inaistinct, sculpture reticulate or obscure under LM, psilate and finely rugulate under SEM ( including L. franchetii; L. tachiroei and L. sikiangensis); (2) Ellipsoidal, P/ E 1.72-2.25; colpi slender, rarely syncolpate; pores pleurotreme, rarely goniotreme, subrectangular; exine 2-layered, nearly equal in thickness, columellae distinct, sculpture reticulate, distinct or indistinct under LM, rugulate or brevistriate-reticulate under SEM (including L. brachylobum; L.pteridophyllum); (3) Rectangular, P/E 1.71-2.42; colpi long, rather long or wide and short; pores pleurotreme, rounded, subrounded or lalongate; exine 2-layered, sexine thicker than nexine; columellae distinct, sculpture reticulate distinct or obscure under LM, rugulate, brevistriate or striate-reticulate under SEM ( L. angelicifolium L. capillaceum; L. multivittatum; L. sinense ; L. sinense cv. Chuanxiong ; L. sinense cv. Fuxiong ; L. jeholense; L. involucratum; L. oliverianum; L. scothicum; L. scapiforme; L. hispidum; L. daucoides; (4) Equatorial-constricted, P/E 2.00-2.42; colpi short or rather short; pores rounded, ellipsoidal or lalongate; exine 2-layered, sexine thicker than nexine, columellae distinct, sculpture distinctly reticulate under LM, rugulate, brevistriate or striate-reticulate undr SEM (L.filifolium; L. discolor; L. ajaense; L. acuminatum) The revolutionary trends of pollen types are as follows: rhomboidal→ ellipsoidal; rhomboidal→ lalongate-rhomboidal→ rectangular→ equatorial-constricted. The aperture is of two types i.e.goniotreme and pleurotreme. Regel (1858)treated Tilingia as an independent genus and Leute (1969)separated the genus Ligusticpsis from Ligusticum, but pollen information supports K.-Pol. (1916) and Hiroe's (1979)systematic arrangement, placing Tilingia and Ligusticopsis into Ligusticum, because Tilingia and Ligusticopsis are similar to Ligusticum in pollen morphology:tricolporate, exine 2-layered, columellae usually distinct and sculpture reticulate. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Chen Song-Bo, Zhang Jin-Tan (Chang King Tang)
      1991, 29 (3): 246–251
      This paper deals with pollen grains of 9 chinese genera of Trib. Anthemideae Cass., which include the genera: Ajania Poljak., Hippolytia Poljak., Stilpnolepis Krasch., Elachanthemum Ling et Y. R. Ling, Filifolium Kitam., Ajaniopsis Shih, Kaschgaria Poljak., Neopallasia Poljak., Seriphidium Poljak., Pollen grains of these genera are isopolar, radially symmetrical, 3-colporate, NPC 345, spheroidal, sometimes suboblate or subprolate. Polar axis 20.0-30.0μm equatorial axis 20.0 -30.0μm. The exine consists of three layers: tectum, columellae and nexine. Exine thickness 3.2-5.6μm, usually the columellae is the thickest. According to the differences of exine ornamentation, they are divided into two main groups: 1. with distinct spines, including the genera Ajania Poljak., Hippolytia Poljak., Stilpnolepis Krasch., 2.with indistinct spinules, including the genera Elachanthemum Ling et Y.R.Ling, Filifolium Kitam., Ajaniopsis Shih, Kaschgaria., Neopallasia Poljak.,Seriphidium Polj
    • Lu Ying-Qing, Chen Yi-Ling
      1991, 29 (3): 252–257
      The seed surface of 12 species of Impatiens L. from Mt. Omei was observed under SEM for the first time. The important characters used in the paper include cell specialization on seed surface, arrangement pattern of the cells, the degree of the cell elevation, chalazal zone morphology and appendix at the tail of the seed. According to these characters, the seed surface morphology of 12 species can be divided into two types: 1. the seed without conspicuous differentiation of surface cells, laevigate on the surface, represented by I. wilsoni; the seeds of species indicated by 3-colpate pollen grains are expected to belong to the type. 2. the seed with the large cell elevation at different levels, surface scabrous, represented by the other 11 species; most species with 4-colpate pollen have this kind of seeds. The results verify that the seed morphology of the genus can supply characters significant to taxonomy of the genus at species level. The evolution of seed surface of Impatiens has close correlation with that ofthe flower and pollen morphology.
    • Yang Ji, Wang Jin-Wu
      1991, 29 (3): 258–263
      Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a morphologically variable and taxonomically complicated group. The height of plants and the degree of nodal expansion greatly vary in different habitats. In this work field observation and mass collection in different habitats of this species were made. By means of biometric techniques, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, scatter diagram and histogram, supplemented by transplantation experiment, it is revealed that the height of plants and the degree of nodal expansion of P. lapathifolium are evidently affected by environmental conditions, and these two variables are not correlated with, but independent from, each other. The results also show that the indumentum on the lower leaf surface is not constant. Therefore all the characters are not reliable diagnostic ones and any taxonomic treatment based on these characters is not reasonable. In this paper, P. nodosum Pers. is reduced as a synonym of P. lapathifolium L. and P.lapathifolium var. salicifolium Sibth. is also eliminated.
    • Cao Zi-Yu
      1991, 29 (3): 264–267
      Three New species and one new variety of the genus Morus (Moraceae) are described from China. They are Morus gongshanensis, M. hastifolia, M. trilobata, M. mongolicavar. longicaudata.
    • Liu Qi-Xian, Zhang Can-Ming
      1991, 29 (3): 270–271
      Rhododendron shimenense Q. X. Liu et C. M. Zhang (Ericaceae) is described asnew from Hunan Province, China.
    • Jiang Zhi-Gang, Yin Zu-Tang
      1991, 29 (3): 272–273
      In this paper one new species of the genus Astragalus L. (Papilionaceae) is des-cribed from Nei Monggol, China. It is A. daqingshanicus Z. G. Jiang et Z. T. Yin.
    • Xue Jia-Rong
      1991, 29 (3): 274–275
      A new species of the genus Neosinocalamus Keng f., N. yunnanensis, is described in this paper.
    • Yu Xiang-Yun, Li Ben-Lang, Li Yu-Mei
      1991, 29 (3): 276–277
      An additional description of Callianthemum cuneilobum Hand.-Mazz. is presented in this paper with a new collection with flowers. Because of lacking adequate specimens the species was treated as a synonym of C. farreri W. W. Smith in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 28:245, 1980.
    • Zhao Qing-Fang
      1991, 29 (3): 278–282
      In this paper, two new species and one new record of the Chara from northwestern China are reported. They are Chara lanzhouensis Q. F. Zhao, C. pseudoglobularis Han, C.arcuatifolia Vilhelm.
    • Zhang Dian-Xiang
      1991, 29 (3): 283–287
      The Median Elimination Series method differs from those of other cladists both theoretically and technically. The principle of parsimony is one of the bases of scientific hypotheses; the theory of evolution is the causal explanation relationships between organisms. Both of them are the bases of cladistics. Thus it is implausible to replace the former by the latter. Distinguishing a plesiomorphy from a reversion and a direct apomorphy from a cyclic apomorphy as indicated by Dr Li (1990) in his character 5 and character ll, is difficult if not impossible. So the basis of MES is vulnerable. Using only 2 taxa in calculating the value of media and thus deciding the placement of a taxon in a cladogram would bring uncertainties when reversion exists. Morphological character homoplasy and reversion must be treated equally if Wagner's parsimony principle is followed. But reversion is ignored in MES calculation. Several more parsimonious cladograms are yielded with Dr Li's data when Farris's method is followed. MES is not a better alternative anyway.

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Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
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JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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