Table of Contents
  • Volume 28 Issue 1

      
      Research Articles
    • Li Lin-Chu
      1990, 28 (1): 1–9
      According to the karyotypic data the present author proposes two evolutionary lines, A and L (Fig. 1), in Taxodiaceae (Exclud. Sciadopitys). The former is characterized by a relatively rapid increase of the mean arm ratio but a relatively slow rise of the ratio of the longest chromosome to the shortest one and it is composed of Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Taxodium and Taiwania, which advance from primitive to progressive in the order. The latter is characterized by, on the contrary, a relatively slow increase of mean arm ratio and a relatively rapid rise of the ratio of chromosome size and it comprises Metasequoia, Sequoiadendron, Sequoia and Cunninghamia (probably Athrotaxis also), which advance in the order. The inference is supported by the data from morphology, anatomy, embryology and so on.Key words Taxodiaceae; Karyotype; Evolutionary line
    • Pan Kai-Yu, Lu An-Ming, Wen Jie
      1990, 28 (1): 10–26
      Observed under LM in the present work were epidermal cells and stomatal apparatuses of mature leaves in 37 species (50 samples) belonging to 19 genera and 6 subfamilies (Hamamelidaceae), of which 35 species (19 genera, 6 subfamilies) were also used for observing under SEM cuticular membrane and wax sculpture, shape of stomata and stucture of stomatal apparatuses of the lower epidermis. (1) It is found that in the family cells of both upper and lower epidermis are tetragonal, pentagonal and hexagonal or irregular; anticlinal walls are straight, arched, sinuolate and sinuate; stomatal apparatuses, which occur only on the lower surface, may be cyclocytic, stephanocytic, paracytic and anomocytic. All these characters of the leaf epidermis are of systematic significance in the family (Fig. 1). (2) Types of stomatal apparatuses are correlated to a certain extent with the pattern of anticlinal walls of epidermal cells and other external morphological characters. In the majority of cases, the groups, whose stomatal apparatuses are cyclocytic (Exbucklandioideae and Rhodoleioideae) and stephanocytic (Mytilaria Lec. and Tetrathyrium Benth.), all have straight or arched anticlinal walls of lower and upper epidermal cells (except for Exbucklandia tonkinensis with sinuate anticlinal walls of both upper and lower epidermal cells, and E. longipetala with sinuate anticlinal walls of upper epidermal cells) (Plate 1:12, 13; 2:4), are all evergreen trees or shrubs, and all have palmate veins and simple hairs (but Rhodoleioideae is pinnateveined or obscurely trinervious and has tufted hairs), indefinite floral parts and numerous ovules, while the groups, whose stomatal apparatuses are paracytic (Disanthoideae, Chunia H. T. Chang, Liquidambaroideae and Hamamelidoideae, which also has anomocytic type in small portion of species) (Table 2), have sinuolate or sinuate anticlinal walls of upper and lower epidermal cells (except for Chunia, Tetrathyrium, Corylopsis brevistyla and C. willmotiae, which have straight and arched anticlinal walls), are mostly deciduous trees and shrubs, and have pinnate veins and tufted hairs in most species, usually tetra-, or pentamerous flowers (except for Liquidambaroideae, which has indefinite floral parts) and usually single ovule (but Disanthoideae and Liquidambaroideae have numerous ovules). (3) The subfamily Liquidambaroideae possesses polyporate pollen grains (Chang 1958, 1979), a circular vascular system in the midrib, at the centre of which is situated a secretory channel (Huang 1982, 1986) and leaf teeth of the unique Altingioid tooth type (Li 1988) etc. Based on these characters some authors tend to support the separation of the subfamily as a family, Altingiaceae. The subfamily, however, shows strong differentiation of characters. For example, in the subfamily, there are both evergreen and deciduous trees, palmate and pinnate leaf veins, capitate, short-spicate and racemose inflorescences and half-interior and inferior ovaries. Furthermore, some characters in the subfamily, which are considered important for the separation, are crisscross with those ih the other members of the Hamamelidaceae. Their stomatal apparatuses are similar to those in most groups of Hamamelidaceae (paracytic), and Sycopsis sinensis also possesses polyporate pollen grains. The subfamily shares with the remaining members of Hamamelidaceae many important characters, such as the presence of stipule, two styles, 2-locular ovary, axial placenta, capsule. From the data available the separation of the subfamily does not seem to be supported by adequate evidence, and it may well be a link of the Hamamelidaceae with the related families. (4) Considering the fact that the subfamily Disanthoideae and most members of the subfamily Hamamelidoideae are of paracytic stomatal apparatuses and pentamerous flowers, the present authors tend to agree with Huang's (1986) view that the subfamily Disanthoideae is more closely related than the other subfamilies to Hamamelidoideae. (5) Leaf epidermis of the family under study shows great diversity under SEM, even within a genus in some cases, but it is generally stable at subfamily or genus level, and therefore SEM characters of the leaf epidermis is of certain taxonomic significance. For example, Exbucklandioideae possesses ovate stomata. The cuticular membrane is annular around stomata (Plate 3:3-6); most stomata are covered with lump-like cuticular membranes in Rhodoleioideae (Plate 3:7,8,11,12); in Mytilaria the cuticular membrane appears lump-like, with a minute-scaly waxy ornamentation (Plate 3:9); the cuticular membrane is striate, with large scales on it in Chunia (Plate 3:10), and it is vermicular in Sycopsis (Plate 5: 9-11). Some differences were also found among species in a genus, for instance, among the three species inCorylopsis (Plate 4:12-14 and Table 2). Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Weng Ruo-Fen
      1990, 28 (1): 27–33
      Cytological observations on thirty fern species from eastern China are reported. Most of the materials examined were fixed in the field from the Wuyishan and Lushan mountains, Putuoshan Island, and Hangzhou, but two of them were fixed from the plants grown in the garden of our Museum. The results of observations are summarized in Table 1. The chromosome numbers of eleven species are reported here for the first time. They are: Allantodia mathewi (Cop.) Ching n=82; A. wichurae (Mett.) Ching n=41; Aleuritopteris pseudofarinosa Ching n=58; Arachniodes exilis (Hance) Ching n=41; A. rhomboides (Wall.) Ching n=41; Athyriopsis peterseni (Kunze) Ching n=80; Humata tyermanni Moore n=40; Leptogramma scallanii (Christ) Ching n=36; Loxogramme fujianensis Ching n=35; Pleocnemia winitii Holtt. n=41; Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorachis (Kunze) Ching n=62. On the basis of ploid levels and reproduction, the thirty species can be divided into three groups as shown in Table 2. Table 2 Three groups of thirty species of Chinese ferns
      Group Number of taxa percentage
      Diploid (sexual) Tetraploid (sexual) Triploid (apomictic) 16 13 1 53.3% 43.4% 3.3%
    • Li Chao-Luan
      1990, 28 (1): 34–53
      The use of parsimony (or the principle of simplicity) in phylogenetic inference is reviewed. The major problem in using parsimony for phylogenetic reconstruction is that neither a single solution for a given set of data nor the most parsimonious tree could be provided. Therefore, based on recognition and judgement of similarity of organisms by Hennig's advanced character (1965) and some particular principles from evolutionary theory of Darwinism accepted by many systematists as general truths (Bonde 1977; Wiley 1975; Gaffrey 1979), the author has developed a new method, Elimination Series through Median Selection (Median Elimination Series, MES for short), for phylogenetic analysis. In addition to using the advanced characters for understanding the relationships between taxa, MES emphasizes that the mosaic characters including both primitive and advanced in an array of characters play an important part in determining the nodes or branches and distinguishing the taxa.The author considers median units as ancestors in a phylogenetic tree like Farris, but the concept and algorithm of “median” differ from Farris' (1970) in: (1) The author's median involves the top taxon and unplaced one, but Farris' median does the top taxon, its ancestor as well as unplaced one; (2) The median taken by the author is of common value or the least one among the associated characters of two taxa. However, the median taken by Farris is median numerical value among the three (3) The median or median unit called by the author is the numerical value of the relatively primitive character or taxon between the advanced characters or the taxa stood apart from the original position. Farris' one is the median position or number in the center of three taxa or its associated characters. The author recognizes that reversion of characters is possible and obtains the knowledge of it from observation and analysis of characters of organisms or scientific experiment and distinguished through analysis of morphocline and co-variation in a series of taxa, but not from induction only by mathematical model based on the principle of simplicity. The author divides co-variation into 4 types: 1. Progressive co-variation. Transformation series of characters A and a is as follows: A → A' a → a' reversed co-variation. Transformation series of characters A and a is as follows: A ← A' a ← a' 3. Progression-reversion co-variation. Transformation series of characters A and a is follows: A → A' a ← a' 4. Reversion-progression co-variation. Transformation series of characters A and a is as follows: A ← A' a → a' The characters next to the arrows should be advanced. Co-variation for most of the species of Cissus from China belongs to the type 1 and that for C. repanda Vahl. to the type 3, without types 2 and 4. In determining the progressive co-variation, reverse evolution of character could be distinguished through the analysis of morphocline and co-variation. The author has recognized two types of cyclic polarity, including unidirectional and bidirectional ones. For the former, the character may return back to the original state through more than one step. In fact, this is a complex reversion. For the latter, the character may reach a advanced state from the original one via two different ways. In fact, this is special progressive transformation series and it may often occur in complex reticulate evolution as a small net, for example, in evolution of leaf fragment and others of angiosperms (Meyen 1973). The cyclic polarity in C. repanda Vahl. is bidirectional (see transformation series 11 of the characters in Cissus). Transformation series of All the characters have been determined on the basis of analysis of morphocline, co-variation and cyclic polarity. In this paper, the three steps of understanding phylogenetic system are developed: (1) recognition of homologous characters; (2) discovery of internal relationships between homologous characters in order to obtain transformation series or phylogeny of homologous characters; (3) discovery of internal relationships between phylogenies of homologous characters in order to get a phylogenetic system of organisms or approaching understanding essence of evolution. The result inferred by MES is based on some principles of evolution from Darwin and Hennig but not judged by the principle of simplicity or parsimony from Popper (1960, 1968). The statement in this paper attempts to show that if a dilemma in modern cladistics could be solved, its principles must be reconsidered. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Wu Cheng-Yih, Pan Jin-Tang
      1990, 28 (1): 54–67
      Some new taxa of the genus Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) are described from the Hengduan Mountains of China. They are Saxifraga yezhiensis C. Y. Wu, S. subomphalodifolia J. T. Pan, S. gonggashanensis J. T. Pan, S. setulosa C. Y. Wu, S. maxionggouensis J. T. Pan, S. yunlingensis C. Y. Wu, S. pellucida C. Y. Wu, S. baimashanensis C. Y. Wu, S. nanelloides C. Y. Wu, S. draboides C. Y. Wu, S. deqenensis C. Y. Wu, S. implicans var. weixiensis C. Y. Wu, S. omphalodifolia var. callosa C. Y. Wu, S. omphalodifolia var. retusopetala J. T. Pan, S. diversifolia var. angustibracteata (Engl. et Irmsch.) J. T. Pan, In addition, one newname (S. dianxibeiensis J. T. Pan) is included.
    • Chen Chia-Jui
      1990, 28 (1): 68–70
      Laportea medogensis C. J. Chen, most closely related to L. decumana(Rumph.) Wedd., is described from southeastern Xizang (Tibet).
    • Lin Quan
      1990, 28 (1): 71–73
      Smilax austro-zhejiangensis Q. Lin (Liliaceae) is described as new fromZhejiang Province, China.
    • Zhang Yu-Hua
      1990, 28 (1): 74–75
      The author examined the type of Cochlearia acutangula O.E.Schulz, G. Giraldi 2423, and found that Yinshania albiflora is conspecific with the former. Therefore the reduction of Yinshania albiflora(=Yinshania acutangula var. albiflo-ra) to Yinshania acutangula as a synonym is made.
    • Fu Hua-Long, Han Fu-Shan
      1990, 28 (1): 76–87
      Guizhou is situated in the southwestern China and is very rich in algae However, our present knowledge of the Charophytes is scanty. Over 400 specimens were collected from 22 counties or cities and from them 41 species, 2 subspecies, 3 varieties were found. In addition to previously known species of this region, Nitella rasilis, N. paludosa, N. pseudopapillata and N. guizhouensis are new species, N. mirabilis var. libera is new variety, and N. penicillata, Chara burmanica, C. vulgaris var. gymnophylla are new records for China. In this paper, only the new taxa are reported.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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