Table of Contents

10 March 1989, Volume 27 Issue 2
    Research Articles
  • Tang Yan-Cheng, Xiang Qiu-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 81-95.
    Clematoclethra (Franch.) Maxim. is a genus endemic to China, and has its distribution center in the area from W. Henan eastwards and to N. Guangxi southwards. For the whole genus, only 1 species comprising 4 subspecies is recognized in this treatment (see Fig. 3). Its members are woody vines and grow in thickets. They are very attractive for their medium-sized white to rosy flowers in spring and scarlet or purplish black to black berry-like fruits in autumn. It is due to the inadequate knowledge of variation within the genus that Liang and Chen (1984) have recognized 20 species and 4 varieties in the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, vol. 49 part 2, including 10 new species and 2 new varieties, just half of the total number of species in the genus. Nearly simultaneously, C. Y. Chang (1983) described 2 new species from Sichuan in addition. The binominal inflation has reduced the taxonomy of the genus to a state of confusion and made floristic analysis difficult. Based on the principal key characters taken from the descriptions in Liang and Chen (1984) and Chang (1983), 22 polygonal graphs are presented for the 22 species in this article (Fig. 1: 1-22). Although the extreme forms, such as those of C. argentifolia and C. actinidioides and that of C. scandens, are very different, there are a series of intermediate polygons, which fall within the range bounded by the extremes and bridge these extremes. We are disposed to consider the genus monotypic in view of this fact. Actuall. Airy Srow (1936) already pointed out “Certain forms appear more distinct from others, but on general it may be said that the ‘species’ o this genus are exceptionally arbitrary”. But unfortunately, Airy Shaw’s warning was neglecled. In the present article, the outer morphology of the plants was extensively studied, which discloses that leaf-form, and all parts of flowers are of little taxonomic significance. The statistical method and histograms were used for evaluating the infraspecific variation. 473 herbarium sheets were treated. Based on the vestiture of annual young branch, leaf, pedicel and calyx, flower numbers per inflorescence, and fruit colour, the species, C. scandens, may be divided into 4 forms (Tab. 1). They each have a particular range but overlap somewhere (Fig. 3). Moreover, three forms occur at different elevations in Mt. Emei, form 1 occurring at 1600-2000 m, form 3 at 1100-1800 m and form 4 at 1850-3100 m (Fig. 4). Inasmuch as the 4 forms are vicarious geographically and ecologically and have differentiated relatively distinctly in 1-2 characters, they are here treated tentatively as 4 subspecies, on the basis of herbarium study alone. A key to 4 subspecies is given as follows. 1. Annual young branches setose, fruits always scarlet at maturity ............ subsp. scandens (form 1) 1. Annual young branches without seta, if present, very rare and sparse, fruit always purplish-black to black at maturity 2. Pedicel and calyx usually woolly, inflorescence usually with 3-7 (-12) flowers ........................ ......................................................................................................... subsp. hemsleyi (form 2) 2. Pedicel and calyx usually not woolly 3. Leaf blades usually tomentose below, inflorescence usually with 3-6 flowers ........................ ................................................................................................ subsp. tomentella (form 3) 3. Leaf blades usually glabrous or sparsely pilose below, inflorescence usually with 1-3 flowers .................................................................................... subsp, actinidioides (form 4) As a result of the study, more natural and reasonable boundaries between the taxa may have been found. Someone may ask why the conclusion here made is so distinctly different from those of the previous authors. We believe that the major concern in taxonomy, and also the first step of classification, should be the assessment of characters and the understanding of their variation, and then the choice of correct names of the taxa worthy of naming. The delimitation of species should be based on correlation of characters and discontinuity of variation but not on the distance (or difference) from type-center. Here we by no means diminish the significance of type specimens in taxonomy. They are indeed very important, but only used in nomenclature for correct application of names. Davis and Heywood (1963: 10) are right when they said “only names have types, not species”. It must be reminded that attention should be paid to the noticeable inconsistency in delimitation of species in various volumes, even within a single family written by different authors in Flora Rep. Pop. Sin., which makes comparison difficult. We eagerly hope that the authors of Flora Rep. Pop. Sin. do more to alleviate this shortcoming in next edition. Judging from the distribution pattern of its close relatives, the genera Actinidia and Saurauia, We suggest that Clematoclethra is a new endemism. Actinidia is mainly distributed in East Asia, with only 2 species extending fron temparate Asia to trapical regions of Malaysia. Saurauia mainly occurs in tropical America and Asia, with a few species extending to south China through Southeast Asia and one species reaching Sichuan. This reassessment is just the beginning of study on Clematoclethra, but it is hoped that this may help to stimulate further synthetic research on the group. We also confess to having not seen many type specimens, and thus some synonyms may have been misplaced here. The decisions have been made from the original descriptions only.
  • Hu Yu-Shi, Ma Rui-Jun
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 96-104.
    Taiwania Hayata contains two species: T.flousiana Gaussen and T. cryptomerioides Hayata, both endemic to China. T. flousiana was investigated with both light and scanning electron microscopes in respect to shoot apex, external and internal surfaces of leaf cuticle, primary leaf, juvenal and mature leaves, young stem, secondary phloem and wood of stem, etc, It is shown that the shoot apex consists of the following five regions: (1) the apical initials; (2) the protoderm, (3) the subapical moher cells;. (4) the peripheral meristem, and (5) the pith mother cells. The periclinal and anticlinal division of the apical initials takes place with approximately equal frequency. The juvenal leaf is nearly triangular or crescent-shaped in cross section and belongs to the leaf type II. The mature leaf is quadrangular in cross section (the leaf type I). There are a progressive series of changes in size and shape of the leaf cross section. The stoma of the mature leaf is amphicyclic and occasionally tricyclic. The crystals in the juvenal leaf cuticle are more abundant than those in the mature leaf cuticle. The transfusion tissue conforms to the Cupressus type. The structure of juvenal leaf is the nearest to that in Cunninghamia unicanaliculata D. Y. Wang et H. L. Liu, while the mature leaf is similar to that of the Cryptomeria. Sclerenchymatous cells of the hypodermis in the young stem comprise simple layers and are arranged discontinuously. No primary fibers are found in the primary phloem. Medullary sheath is present between the primary xylem and the pith. There are some sclereids in the pith. The secondary phloem of the stem consists of regularly alternate tangential layers of cells in such a sequence: sieve cells, phloem parenchyma cells, sieve cells, phloem fibers, sieve cells. The phloem fiber may be divided into thick-walled and thin-walled phloem fiber. The crystals of calcium oxalate in the radial walls of sieve cells are abundant. Homogeneous phloem rays are uniseriate or partly biseriate, 1-48 (2-13) cells high, and of 26-31 strips per square mm. Growth rings of the wood in Taiwania are distinct. The bordered pits on the radial walls of early wood tracheids are usually uniseriate, occasionally paired and opposite pitting. Wood parenchyma is present, and its cells contain brown resin substances. Their end walls are smooth, lacking nodular thickenings. Wood rays are homogeneous. Cross-field pits are cupressoid. Resin canals are absent. Based on the anatomy of Taiwania and comparison with the other genera of Taxodiaceae, the authors consider the establishment of Taiwaniaceae not reasonable, but rather support the view that the genus is better placed between Cuninghamia and Arthrotaxis in Taxodiaceae.
  • Liao Mao-Chuan, Xiao Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 105-113.
    From pollen grains of Typha davidiana, T. latifolia, T. angustata the same eight flavonoids have been isolated. They are identified as naringenin I, isorhamnetin II, quercetin III, isorhamnetin-3-O-(2G-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-rutioside IV, quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-rutinosida, V, isorhamnetio-3-O-rutinoside VI, isorhamnetino-3-O-neohesperidoside VII, kampferol-3-O-neohesperidoside VIII. Flavonoids of pollen grains of five species of Typha, including the above three species, were analysed by TLC with the result showing that the constituents in the pollen grains of the five species are very similar. The chemical comparison among Typha and Sparganium and 16 possibly related families shows that Typha is different from Pandanaceae or Pandanales and is similar to Restionaceae, Flagellariaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae in some respects. Typha and Sparganium are very similar in many respects, and they could be treated in the same family, Typhaceae, which merit the rank of order, Typhales.
  • Yang Di-Qing, Zhu Xie-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 114-117.
    The present paper reports karyotype analysis of Cephalanthera erecta and C. falcata from Lushan, China. (1) The karyotype formula of C. erecta is 2n=34=10m+ 14sm+ 10st. C. falcata has two cytotypes: type A is 2n = 34 = 8m + 16sm + 10st, while type B is 2n = 34 = 8m + 22sm + 4st. The type B is a translocation homozygote derived from the type A by chromosomal structural reorganization, which involved a translocation between the short arms of the 1st pair of chromosomes and the long arms of the 3rd pair. The type B is similar to the type A in morphological characterissties. (2)In the light of Stebbins’ classification of karyotypic asymmetry, three karyotypes of C. erecta and C. falcata belong to “3C”. Such an asymmetrical karyotype in a primitive genus like Cephalanthera of Orchidaceae may be of great significancefor a discussion on evolution and deserves a further study.
  • Cao Ya-Ling, Lu Rong-Sen
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 118-123.
    The present paper reports karyotypes in 4 species and 5 subspecies of Hippophae L. in China. It is found that all of the species and subspecies are diploid, with 2n=24, their complements are made of m and sm chromosomes and of them only H. thibetana has a pair of satellites. All of these karyotypes are symmetrical and primitive. It can be simplied as follows: Hippophae neurocarpa 2n = 2x = 24 = 18m+6sm, H. thibetana 2n = 2x = 24 = 14m (2sat)+ 8sm, H. rhamnoides L. ssp. gyantsensis 2n=2x=24= 18m+ 6sm, H. salicifolia 2n = 2x = 24 = 10m + 14sm, H. rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis 2n=2x= 24 = 18m + 6sm, H. rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica 2n = 2x = 24 = 20m + 4sm; Hi. rhamnoides L. ssp. yunnanensis 2n = 2x = 24 = 14 + 10sm, H. rhamnoides L. ssp. mongolica 2n = 2x = 24 = 16m + 8sm.
  • Wu Te-Lin, Chen Zhong-Yi
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 124-128.
    Pyrgophyllum (Gagnep.) T. L. Wu et Z. Y. Chen is a monotypic genus of Zingiberaceae from China. Originally, it was placed in Kaempferia as a subgenus by Gagnepain (1901), later transferred to Camptandra by Schumann (1904) and to Caulokaempferia by R. M. Smith. (1972). In this paper, the authors suggest that the separation of Pyrgophyllum at generic rank is justified on cytological, morphological and anatomical evidence. It is characterised by the large lamina-like bracts, which are rarely seen in Zingiberaceae. The margin of each bract is adnate to the main axis of the inflorescence at the base and the lip is lobed. Trichomes unicellular, stomata each with 4-7 lateral subsidiary cells, lateral veins are of three various types of vascular bundles: girder-shaped, semigirder-shaped and isolated. The pollen grains are spinecent. The basic chromosome number (x) is 21. The type species, Pyrgophyllum yunnanensis (Gagnep.) T. L. Wu et Z. Y. Chen (Kaempferia yunnanensis Gagnep.), is only distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China.
  • Wang Ce-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 129-131.
  • Cui Shun-Chang, Yu Ji-Xiang
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 131-131.
  • Pei Sheng-Ji, Chen San-Yang, Tong Shao-Quan
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 132-146.
  • Chang Yong-Tian
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 147-150.
  • Fu Gou-Ai, Huang Cheng-Chiu
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 151-152.
  • Li Ben-Liang, Yu Xiang-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 152-152.
  • Ye Neng-Gan, Li Shu-Jiu
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 153-154.
  • Hsieh Yin-Tang, Wang Zhong-Ren
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 155-157.
  • Shen Yln'-Wu, Li Yao-Ying
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(2): 158-159.