Table of Contents

18 June 1984, Volume 22 Issue 3
    Research Articles
  • Zhang Zhi-Yu, Lu An-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 175-180.
    The pollen morphology of 12 species representing 6 genera was examined under the light; scanning and transmission electron microscope. According to form of aperture; sculpture and structure of exine; the palynological relationships among the 6 genera are discussed. 1. Scopolia Jacq. (plate 1:1-4) Pollen grains subspheroidal or irregular; 43.7-49.6 μ in diameter; nonaperturate; Exine about 1.2-1.5μ thick; verrucate; with verrucae unequal in size; spinulose or granular. Stratification indistinct; with no columella layer visible under TEM. 2. Anisodus Link et Otto (plate 1: 5-12) Pollen grains subspheroidal; 43.4-48.7 μ in diameter; nonaperturate. Exine 1.5-1.8 μ thick; verrucate; with verrucae unequal in size; spinulose or smooth. Stratification indistinct under TEM. 3. Atropanthe Pascher (plate 2: 1-4) Pollen grains subspheroidai or spheroidal; triangular-circular in polar view; oblong in equatorial view; 47.2-49.3 μ ×39.8-47 μ; 3-colpate; colpi wide or narrow; colpus membranes finely granular. Exine with irregular short-stick sculpture; 2.3μ thick; distinctly 2-layered; columella layer clearly visible; sexine thicker than nexine under TEM. 4. Przewalskia Maxim. (plate 2: 5-8) Pollen grains subspheroidal; triangular-circular in polar view; oblong in equatorial view; 39.2-40.3 μ × 36.4-42.8 μ ; tricolporate; ora lalongate; colpus membranes granular. Exine reticulate; 2-layered; 2u thick; columella layer distinct; sexine and nexine equal in thickness under TEM. 5. Physochlaina G. Don (plate 2: 9-12; plate 3: 1-12) Pollen grains polymorphic; usually subspheroidal; 36.5-39.4μ in diameter; aperture varying from nonaperturate (P. macrophylla); 3-4 rugose (P. physaloides) to 3-colporate (P. praealta). Exine 1.5-2μ thick; reticulate; smooth or with spinulose or verrucous processes under SEM; distinctly 2-layered; or without stratification; columella layer differentiated or not. 6. Hyoscyamus Linn. (plate 4: 1-9) Pollen grains subspheroidal; circular-triangular in polar view; oval in equatorial view; 39.9-41.8 μ × 38.7-4.2 μ; tricolporate. Ora orbicular; colpus membranes finely granular or with striate processes. Exine reticulate or striate-rugulate; 2-2.3μ thick; distinctly 2-layered; columella layer developed. The dendrogram (Fig. 1) indicates probable phylogenetic relationships among the sixgenera in the subtribe Hyoscyaminae.
  • Hong De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 181-184.
    Echicocodon Hong (Wahlenbergieae); Gen. nov. Calyx 2-5-saepe 4-fidus; lobis utrinque 2-4-lobulis spiniformibus praeditis. Corolla tubulosa; ad medium parterm (3-) 4 (-5)-lobata. Stamina (3-) 4 (-5); libera; sed inter se eonniventia; filamentis basi parum expansis. Ovarium fere inferum; 3-5-1oculare; stigmata 3-5; demum recurva; linearia; ovula ∞. Capsula globosa; 3-5-locularis; spice loculicide dehiscens; valvis calycis lobis alternantibus. Semina ∞ ; minima; ellipsoidea; obtuse triquetra.——Herbae perennes; lactesentes; radicibus palaribus crassiusculis. Folia alterna; pinnatipartita. Flores solitarii terminalesque vel 2-3 in cymam conferti. Genus monotypicum; in provincia Hubei Sinae cresens. Typus generis: Echinocodon lobophyllus Hong. Echinocodon lobophyllus Hong; sp. nov. plate 1 Herbae diffusae; omnino glabrae; radicibus palaribus ad 5 mm crassis. Caulis ad 40 cm longus; ramosissimus. Folia alterna; petiolis 5-10 mm longis; laminis ellipticis; 5-20 mm longis; 3-15 mm latis; basi anguste cuneatis; apice obtusis; pinnatisectis vel ad medium pinnatipartitis. Flores solitarii terminales vel 2-3 in cymam conferti; pedicellis 1-5 cm longis. Calycis lobi ovato-lanceolati; 2-6 mm longi; lobulis spiniformibus exclusis 1-3 mm lati. Corolla purpureo-caerulea; tubulosa; 3-4.5 mm longa; ad medium (3-)4(-5)-lobata; lobis late ovato-diltoideis; ad 3 mm latis. Stamina inter se conniventia; filamentis liberis; 1.5 mm longis; basi expansis; ciliatis; antheris oblongis; 1 mm longis. Stylus 1 mm longus; stigmata linearia; demum recurva. Capsula globosa; 3-5 mm diam.; sed parte supera conica et 2 mm longa. Semina minima; luteo-fusca; ellipsoidea; obtuse triquetra; 0.3 mm longa. China: Hubei Province; Yunxi County; near the town; 300 m alt.; 1 Jul. 1983. Ma Yuan-jun and Hong De-yuan PB83006 (holotype; PE); the same locality; 11 Jul. 1978; Ma Yuan-jun 3921. The new genus; Echinocodon Hong; shows its systematic position in the tribe Wahlenbergieae by the inferior ovary and capsule which loculicidally dehisces above the calyx and is closely related to the genera Codonopsis; Platycodon and Wahlenbergia; from all of which it differs in having the calyx lobes with spinelike lobules and the pinnatisect or pinnatipartite leaves. From Codonopsis it differs also in having the linear stigma lobes; from Platycodon also in the capsule valves alternate with the calyx lobes and from Wahlenhergia also in having the 4(5)-colpate pollen grains. Meiosis in pollen mother cells was examined and; 8 bivalents in MI and 8 chromosomes in MII were always observed (Plate 2: 1-2). The chromosomt number is thus determined to be n=8. The pollen grains taken from the flowers which were fixed in the fields with Carnoy II fixative (6:3:1 absolute alcohol/chloroform/glacial acetic acid) were examined without further treatment under SEM; and under LM after acetolysis. The result shows that they are oblate; 4(5)-colpate (Plate 2: 3-4); with colpi 10.5μm long and 2.5μm wide and with a smooth colpus membrane (Plate 2: 5). The exine is 2-layered; with a distinct baculate layer (Plate 2:7-8). The sexine surface is covered with spinules almost regularly spaced; 0.6μm high and basally divided. The sexine between spinules consists of short ridges (Plate 2: 6). The new genus is closely related to the genera Codonopsis; Wahlenbergia and Platycodon from gross morphological point of view; but its pollen grains differ markedly from all of them. The pollen grains in Codonopsis are longly 5-colpate; and with the sexine consisting of a low relief reticulum; those in Platycodon longly 5-colporate and those in Wahlenbergia 3-porate. The pollen type of the new genus Echinocodon with short colpi is therefore probably derived from the longly colpate type of pollen like that of Codonopsis or directly from longly colporate type like that of Platycodon; and is likely more primitive than thatin Wahlenbergia.
  • Wang Wen-Tsai
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 185-190.
  • Li Yao-Ying
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 191-192.
  • Ching Ren-Chang, Lin You-Xing
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 193-204.
  • Kiu Hua-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 205-208.
  • Liou Ying-Xin
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 209-216.
  • Zheng Qing-Fang, Huang Ke-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 217-220.
  • Yang Ren-Jun
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 221-223.
  • Zhang Peng-Yun, Zhang Yao-Jia
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 224-226.
  • Chien Jia-Jü
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 227-230.
    This paper deals with some species of Lunathyrium Koidz. in N. E. Asia; including the eastern mountainous district of N. E. China; Far East Region of U. S. S. R.; Korea and Japan.
  • Chen Qin-Niang
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 230-230.
  • Li Jia-Ying
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 231-236.
    This paper reports a diatom assemblage found by the author from the Upper Tertiary continental strata in Shangdu County in Niemongol Autonomous Region and Dunhua County in Jilin Province of China. The diatom assemblage in Shangdu County comprises 4 new species and 2 new varieties: Tetracyclus ellipticus var. ovalifolium Li; Tetracyclus ellipticus var. rostrata Li; Tetracyclus jaoi Li; Tetracyclus navicularis Li; Tetracyclus shangduensis Li and Tetracyclus sinensis Li. From the Miocene of Dunhua County; JilinProvince are recorded 2 new species: Tetracyclus dunhuanensis Li and Tetracyclus ovaliformis Li.
  • Qiao Chuan-Zhuo, Cui Xi
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 237-242.
    “Song Lan” is a source of Chinese drugs such as “Daqingye”, “Banlangen” or “Qingdai”. We have discovered that the two species, “Song Lan” (Isatis indigotica Fort.) and woad (I. tinctoria L.), were mistakenly described in the literature due to their morphological polymorphism. In order to clarify the two species, cytology examination, pollen analysis, electrophoretic analysis of isoenzymes and soluble protein were performed. The results show that previous non-trichiferous type of woad is a “Song Lan”. As in woad, “Song Lan” is also morphologically of great variability. The base of canline leaves in this species may be sagittate or auriculate. We have not found the non-trichiferous type of woad in our country. It is reported for the first time that the chromosome number for “Song Lan” is 2n=14. The content of the indole glucoside in fresh leaves of “Song Lan” is about five timeshigher than in woad. For medicine cultivation of “Song Lan” is favorable.
  • Ma Xing-Hua, Qin Ruo-Lin, Xing Wen-Bing
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 243-249.
    Chromosome examination was carried out in 30 medical plant species native to Xinjiang in 14 families, ten of which are traditional medical plants of the minority nationalities in the region, the karyotype analysis was also carried out in some species. Karyotype formulae are 2n=12=10Lm+2SstSAT for Nigella glandulifera, 2n=16= 2m+12sm+ 2st for Trollius chinensis, 2n= 16 =8m + 8sm for Astragalus membranaceus, 2n=16=10m 6 sm for Astragalus mongholicus, 2n=16=8 m+8 sm for Catharanthus roseus. The chromosomal numbers of the others are as follows: Dianthus chinensis, 2n=30, Vaccaria pyramidata, 2n=30, Cassia occidentalis, 2n=26, Psoralea corylifolia, 2n=22, Peganum harmala, 2n=22, Acanthopanax trifolitus, 2n=46, Anethum graveolens, 2n=22, Foeniculum vulgare 2n=22, Trachyspermum ammi, 2n= 18, Agastache rugosus, 2n= 18 Dracocephalum moldavica, 2n= 10, Leonurus heterophyllus, 2n=20, Ocimum basilicum, 2n=48, schizonepeta tenuifolia, 2n=24, Atropa belladonna, 2n=60 Nicandra physaloidea, 2n=20, Solanum surattense, 2n=24, Scrophularia ningpoensis, 2n= 90, Plantago insularis, 2n =8, Gardenia jasminoides, 2n =22, Platycodon grandiflorus 2n= 18, Cichorium intybus, 2n= 18, Saussuea involucrata, 2n=32, Silybum marianum, 2n=34, Vernonia anthelmintica, 2n=20. The kar-yotypes of 8 species are reported for the first time.
  • Huang Shao-Fu, Zhao Ye-Fen, Chen Zhong-Yi
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 250-251.
    The present paper describes for the first time the karyotype of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, a medicinal tree endemic to Hainan (Guang dong), China. The plant is shown to have 20 somatic chromosomes (2n=20), two of which (the third pair) are submetacentric (sm), and all the others are metacentric (m) (Fig. 1-2). The voucher andits conservation are given.
  • Yang Di-Qing, Zhu Xie-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 252-255.
    The present paper reports the chromosome numbers of 12 species in Orchidaceae from China. The results are as follows: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f. 2n= 32, Calanthe discolor Lindl. 2n=40, Calanthe hamata Hand. -Mazz. 2n=40, Cephalanthera erecta (Thunb.) Bl. 2n=34, Cephalanthera falcata (Thunb.) B1. 2n=34, Changnienia amoena Chien 2n=46, Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) Makino 2n = 42, Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. 2n=38, Gastrodia elata Bl. n=15, 18, Liparis dunnii Rolfe 2n= 20, Platanthera minor (Miq.) Rchb. f. 2n=42, Pleione bulbocoidioides (Franch.) Rolfe 2n=40.
  • Su Song-Wang, He Jia-Qing
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(3): 256-258.
    This paper reports the bisexual structure of the flowers of Pterocarya stenoptera. The bisexual flowers are borne at the end of a leafy shoot of the current year in many-flowered terminal pendulous catkins. They have the same structure as the general female ones. Each flower grows in the axil of a bract, with a pair of bracteoles and four small perianths. Each flower has two or three carpels in the centre of the flower, and upon them there are two or three styles with stigmas on the inner face. They differ from the general female ones in that each of them contains 4-6 stamens, forming a single whorl. The stamens alternates with, or is opposite to, the perianth elements. Sometimes they contain 8 (-10) stamens, forming two whorls, with 6 in the outer whorl and 2 (-4) in the inner whorl, and in this case the pistil in the bisexual flower of terminal catkins often becomes a rudiment. It is interesting that we have also found bisexual flowers in another tree, which are borne in lateral male catkins. They have the same structure as general male ones, and the pistils are often represented by a rudiment. Manning (1940) points out that some female flowers of Pterocarya stenoptera and P. fraxinifolia occasionally have stamens ( ? ) opposite the sepals. In P. stenoptera we have found that both the stamens and the stigmas of bisexual flowers are functional. They are capable of producing functional fruits. This is the same case as in Myrica Gale described by Davey and Gibson (1917). Rendle (1952) points out that in the male flowers of Platycarya the pistils often appeared as a rudiment. He considers, however, the male flowers derived from the bisexual flowers with an indefinite number of stamens. The rudimentary pistils of lateral male catkins in P. stenoptera we found are just the same as the ones found in Platycarya by Rendle. The discovery of the bisexual flowers in P. stenoptera may prove that the unisexual flowers of the present-day Juglandaceae are derived from ancestors with bisexual flowers.This tends to support the hypothesis that Cycadicae is the possible ancestor of the angiosperms.