Table of Contents

18 February 1982, Volume 20 Issue 1
    Research Articles
  • Chen Sing-Chi
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 1-22.
    An attempt has been made in the present paper to discourse on the orgigin and early differentiation of the Orchidaceae, based on recent information, as well as a comparative study of some significant characteristics in the most primitive genera ofthis family. Four problems are separately discussed in the following:
  • Yang Han-Pi
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 23-33.
    The present paper is a preliminary research of the taxonomy, evolution, geographical distribution and origin of the species of the Genus Pedicularis L. in Xizang plateau. It may be summed up as follows: 1. There are 108 species of Pedicularis in Xizang, representing about 33% of the total species of the genus known in China. Among these species, there are 35 endemics, about 35.9% of the total species of the genus, this is especially true in Southeastern Xizang. Where there are 82.7% of total species of Xizang and 88% of endemics reported. 2. According to the relationships of the morphology of flower, leaf and evolution, the genus Pedicularis in Southeastern Xizang seems very active in evolution, because there is a wide range of flower types varying from the primitive alternate-toothless and opposite-toothed to the advanced beaked and long-tubed corolla-types. 3. There are almost all morphological types of the pollen, especially, the primitive particular tricolpate type is decidedly dominant, and the species with derived type of bicolpate pollen almost all belong to the beeked, long-tubed type of flowers; therefore, the evolutionary tendency and correlation between two types is very clear. According to above conditions, it may be considered that Southeastern Xizang is the evolutionary centre of the Genus Pedicularis L. 4. Basing upon the floristic-geographical analysis of neighbouring regions, we may consider that the members of genus Pedicularis in Xizang mainly come from the East, i.e. the mountains of the plateau frontier in Western Sichuan and Northwestern Yunnan. Finally, the floral relationships with other regions such as Buthan, Nepal, Xinjiang and Qinghai, Gansu, etc. are not so close, because the species in common are not verymany and usually widely distributed species.
  • Kuo Pen-Chao, Sun Yong-Hua
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 34-44.
    24 species and 4 varietes of genus Stipa L. of China have been studied and described in this paper. It has been noted that these different species have various geographical distributions, depending on the changes of climatic and edaphic factors of their environments. Based on the study of floral morphology together with ecological and distributional factors, the genus have been divided into 5 sections: 1. Sect. Regelia Tzvel. 2. Sect. Leiostipa Dum. 3. Sect. Barbatae Junge 4. Sect. Stipa 5. Sect. Smirnovia Tzvel. It should be pointed out that the section Regelia as well as two members of section Barbatae, S. purpurea and S. roborowskyi, belong to frigori-xerophilous ecotype, distributing over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau above the forest line. The section Leiostipa belongs to euxerophilous and mesoxerophilous ecotype, distributing widely in northwest, southwest, northeast and east and extends to the forest-steppe vegetational Zone of China. The section Smirnovia and other two members of section Barbatae, S. breviflora and S. orientalis, belong to euxerophilous ecotype, with the latitudinal distribution as far as Nei-Mongo and the yellow soil plateau, with the altitudinal distribution as far as the desert steppe of Sinkang and Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The section Stipa belongs to euxerophilous ecotype, only distributes to the mountain steppe of north Xingkang and the last, section Barbatae is an artificial group having plumes overof the awn only, and its four species have already been mentioned above.
  • Sheh Meng-Lan, Su Pu, Shan Ren-Hwa
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 45-48.
    This paper deals with the studies of pollen morphology of 8 genera including 22 species and 1 variety of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). They have been investigated under both the light microscope and the SEM. These genera can be distinguished by their pollen characters. The observed data listing in the following table reveal that they can be distinguished according to shape of pollen, form of pores, sculpture of exine and size of grains etc. 1. Shape of pollen grains (1) subrhomboidal type: Chuanminshen Sheh et Shan, Changium Wolff, Cyclorhiza Sheh et Shan (2) oval type: Seseli L. (3) subrectangular type a. thickened at the equator and rugulose: Peuecdanum L. b. constricted at the equator and rugulose: Ligusticum L. e. constricted at the equator and rugulose, thickened at both polar zones: Vicatia DC. (4) equatorially-constricted type, rugulose at the equator, thickened at both polar zones: Ferula L. 2. Form of aperture (1) rectangular protrude type: Chuanminshen Sheh et Shan, Ferula L., Changium Wolff (2) circular type: Ligusticum L. (3) elliptic type: Peucedanum L., Vicatia DC., Seseli L. 3. Sculpture of exine (1) reticulate: Chuanminshen Sheh et Shah (2) pitted-reticulate: Changium Wolff (3) striate-reticulate: Ferula L., Peucedanum L., Ligusticum L., Seseli L., Vicatia DC. (4) cerebro-reticulate: Cyclorhiza Sheh et Shan Basing upon the above pollen characters, the genera Cyclorhiza Sheh et Shah and Chuanminshen Sheh et Shan are briefly discussed. They are two clearly delimitatednatural genera.
  • Wang Wei-Yi
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 49-58.
    Anatomical characteristics of the wood, the branchlets and the leaf blades of nine representative species of Rhododendron on Qinghai plateau have been examined in order to explore their taxonomic position. On the basis of vessel figures in growth rings, the wood of Rhododendron can be divided into two divisions, namely, semi-ring pore and scattered pore wood. Because of the differences of the wood ray-structure and the glandular hairs on the branchlets andthe leaf blades, the latter can be further classified into two subdivisions.
  • Wang Zhong-Ren, Sun Ching-San
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 59-62.
    The spore mother cells of six species of Chinese homosporous ferns have been examined, among them the chromosome numbers of five species, Adiantum capillus-junonis Rupr. (n= 30), Ctenitis rhodolepis (Clarke) Ching (n = 41), Cyclogramma flexilis (Christ) Tagawa (n = 68), Leptogramma scallani (Christ) Ching (n = 36) and Vandenboschia auriculata (B1.) Copel. (n=36), from Emei Shan (Omei) Sichuan province are recorded for the first time. The chromosome number n=68 from the species Cyclogramma flexilis suggests that the base number for this genus is 34. Another species, Athyrium brevifrons Nakai from Wuling Shah Beijing (Peking) has a gameticchromosome number n=40, as already reported by K. Mitui and H. Hirabayashi.
  • Sun Xing-Jun, Kong Zhao-Chen, Li Ming-Xing, Li Pun
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 63-72.
    In the northern part of South China Sea, including Tonkin Gulf, Hainan lsland, Leizhon Peninsula and some basin of Guangdong Province, Paleogene deposits are composed of three formations: the Weizhon, the Liushagang and the Changliu formations arranged in descending order. The paper on the palynoflora of the Weizhon Formation (early and middle Oligocene) is in press[2]. This paper deals only with the palynoflora of the Liushagang Formation, with may be divided into four main stages: The first stage is represented by Monocolpollenites tranquillus and Crassoretitriletes sp., assigned to early Eocene The second stage is characterized by Salixipollenites, Momipites triletipollenites and Operculumpollis. Its age is middle Eocene. The third stage is dominated by some species of Quercoidites and Ulmipollenites and also characterized by the presence of Platycaryapollenites and Prominangularia dogyingensis, This sporo-pollen assemblage suggests a late Eocene in age. The fouth stage is marked by profusion of some alga of brockish water, such as Rugasphera corrugia, Granodiscus gronulatus and some pollen types of Liquidambarpollenites minutus, Multiporopollenites puctatus and Tricolporopollenites minutus. The age of the last stage is assigned to early oliocene. In generaly, the palynoflora of the Liushagang Formation is quite different from that of the Weizhou Formation. The main types of spores and pollen are common with those found in Europe and North America of the same age, while the Weizhou Formation has many elements common both in this region and Borneo. During Eocene and early Oligocene this area was of continental phase with brackish basins. At the beginning the climate was rather moist and hot, but then itbecame moist and warmtemperate.
  • Ching Ren-Chang, Wang Zhong-Ren
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 73-77.
    The fern Athyrium crenulato-serrulatum Makino is found in the whole of Northeastern Asia embracing Northeastern China, Korea, Japan, Ussuri and the Far East USSR. It is similar to the European Athyrium distentifolium, formerly known as A. alpestre, in having exindusiate round or ovate sori, but differs in several essential characters, such as the well-spaced fronds are biseriately arranged along a thick and long-creeping rhizome, the base of stipe is thickened and not attenuated towards the point of attachment, the deltoid-ovate lamina with the basal pinnae as long as those next above, which all are distinctly petiolate and the rachis, costis and especially the costules of pinnules clad in fine pale-colored generally septate hairs underneath. All these clearly show that the fern in question is not an Athyrium sen. str. neither Pseudoathyrium Newman to which latter the fern was referred by Nakai. However, we have been long suspicious of its proper systematic position. In his recent monograph on the genus Cornopteris (Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 30: 104. 1979.) Kato has pointed out that C.crenulato-serrulata (Makino) Nakai “has the northernmost destribution in the genus and exhibits a few characteristics similar to Athyrium, the swollen base of stipes with projections and cartilaginous lamina margin. By these characteristics the species is clearly discriminated from other species”. According to Kurita (1964), Mitui (1970) and Karo (1978) the species in question has chromosome numbers n=40, the base number of the subfamily Athyrioides instead of x=41, the base number of the subfamily Diplazioides including Cornopteris Nakai. Since thefern in question fits no other athyrid genera, hence a new genus is proposed.
  • Tang Tsin, Wang Fa-Tsuan, Lang Kai-Yung
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 78-86.
  • Lu An-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 87-90.
  • Wu Young-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 91-94.
  • Zhang Xiu-Shi
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 95-98.
  • Zhao Yu-Tang
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 99-100.
  • Tseng Yung-Chien
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 105-107.
  • Kiu Hua-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 108-110.
  • Zhou Li-Hau
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 111-112.
  • Miao Bo-Mao
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 113-114.
  • Liang Sheng-Yeh
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 115-117.
  • Li Ping-T’ao
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 117-117.
  • Wang Qing-Jiang
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 118-118.
  • Chao Zi-En, Zheng Cheng-Jin
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(1): 119-119.