J Syst Evol ›› 2018, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (4): 297-308.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12447

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Chloroplast phylogenomics of the New World grape species (Vitis, Vitaceae)

Jun Wen1*, AJ Harris1, Yash Kalburgi1, Ning Zhang2, Yuan Xu3, Wei Zheng4, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond5, Gabriel Johnson1, and Elizabeth A. Zimmer1   

  1. 1Department of Botany, MRC-166, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA
    2Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Regulatory Science, U. S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
    3Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
    4Faculty of Architecture and City Planning, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
    5UA Museum of the North and Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 907 Yukon Dr., PO Box 756960, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-6960, USA
  • Received:2017-10-14 Accepted:2018-06-21 Published:2018-07-10


Vitis L. (the grape genus) is the economically most important fruit crop, as the source of grapes and wine. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus have been highly controversial. Herein, we employ sequence data from whole plastomes to attempt to enhance Vitis phylogenetic resolution. The results support the New World Vitis subgenus Vitis as monophyletic. Within the clade, V. californica is sister to the remaining New World Vitis subgenus Vitis. Furthermore, within subgenus Vitis, a Eurasian clade is robustly supported and is sister to the New World clade. The clade of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera and V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris is sister to the core Asian clade of Vitis. Several widespread species in North America are found to be non‐monophyletic in the plastome tree, for example, the broadly defined Vitis cinerea and V. aestivalis each needs to be split into several species. The non‐monophyly of some species may also be due to common occurrences of hybridizations in North American Vitis. The classification of North American Vitis by Munson into nine series is discussed based on the phylogenetic results. Analyses of divergence times and lineage diversification support a rapid radiation of Vitis in North America beginning in the Neogene.

Key words: grape genus, phylogenomics, plastomes, Vitaceae, Vitis.