Table of Contents

10 July 2018, Volume 56 Issue 4
Cover illustration: A phylogeny of Vitaceae supports the five tribes of the family proposed by Wen et al., pp. 262–272 in this issue (Leea as outgroup), and the background map shows the geographic distribution of Vitaceae. The bottom images represent four extant genera and a fossil wood that are specifically addressed in the special issue; from left to right are (i) the synapomorphy of Cyphostemma with a floral nectary disk of four separate glands (photographer Li-Min Lu), (ii) a floral bud of (photographer Tsai-Wen Hsu), (iii) the inflorescence of Tetrastigma serrulatum (photographer Li-Min Lu), (iv) the infructescence of Vitis rotundifolia (photographer Jun Wen), and (v) the stem cross-section of Austrovideira dettmannae (Photographer Geoff Thompson). Designed by Li-Min Lu, Stefanie Ickert-Bond, and Jun Wen. [Detail] ...
  • Li-Min Lu, Stefanie Ickert-Bond, Jun Wen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 259-261.
  • Review
  • Jun Wen, Li-Min Lu, Ze-Long Nie, Xiu-Qun Liu, Ning Zhang, Stefanie Ickert-Bond, Jean Gerrath, Steven R. Manchester, John Boggan, Zhi-Duan Chen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 262-272.

    Vitaceae (the grape family) consist of 16 genera and ca. 950 species primarily distributed in tropical regions. The family is well‐known for the economic importance of grapes, and is also ecologically significant with many species as dominant climbers in tropical and temperate forests. Recent phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses of sequence data from all three genomes have supported five major clades within Vitaceae: (i) the clade of Ampelopsis, Nekemias, Rhoicissus, and Clematicissus; (ii) the Cissus clade; (iii) the clade of Cayratia, Causonis, Cyphostemma, Pseudocayratia, Tetrastigma, and an undescribed genus “Afrocayratia”; (iv) the clade of Parthenocissus and Yua; and (v) the grape genus Vitis and its close tropical relatives Ampelocissus, Pterisanthes and Nothocissus, with Nothocissus and Pterisanthes nested within Ampelocissus. Based on the phylogenetic and morphological (mostly inflorescence, floral and seed characters) evidence, the new classification places the 950 species and 16 genera into five tribes: (i) tribe Ampelopsideae J.Wen & Z.L.Nie, trib. nov. (47 species in four genera; Ampelopsis, Nekemias, Rhoicissus and Clematicissus); (ii) tribe Cisseae Rchb. (300 species in one genus; Cissus); (iii) tribe Cayratieae J.Wen & L.M.Lu, trib. nov. (370 species in seven genera; Cayratia, Causonis, “Afrocayratia”, Pseudocayratia, Acareosperma, Cyphostemma and Tetrastigma); (iv) tribe Parthenocisseae J.Wen & Z.D.Chen, trib. nov. (ca. 16 spp. in two genera; Parthenocissus and Yua); and (v) tribe Viteae Dumort. (ca. 190 species in two genera; Ampelocissus and Vitis).

  • Research Articles
  • Zhao-Fu Chu, Jun Wen, Yong-Ping Yang, Ze-Long Nie, Ying Meng
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 273-282.

    Genome size variation is of fundamental biological importance and has been a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. In the present study, the genome size of 61 accessions corresponding to 11 genera and 50 species of Vitaceae and Leeaceae is determined using flow cytometry. Phylogenetically based statistical analyses were used to infer ancestral character reconstructions of nuclear DNA contents. The DNA 1C‐values of 38 species are reported for the first time, with the largest genome (Cyphostemma humile (N. E. Br.) Desc. ex Wild & R. B. Drumm, 1C = 3.25 pg) roughly 10.48‐fold larger than the smallest (Vitis vulpina L., 1C = 0.31 pg). The large genomes are restricted to the tribe Cayratieae, and most other extant species in the family possess relatively small genomes. Ancestral genome size reconstruction revealed that the most recent common ancestor for the family had a relatively small genome (1C = 0.85 pg). Genome evolution in Vitaceae has been characterized by a trend towards genome size reduction, with just one episode of apparent DNA accumulation in the Cayratieae lineage. Such contrasting patterns of genome size evolution probably resulted from transposable elements and chromosome rearrangements, while neopolyploidization seems to contribute to recent genome increase in some species at the tips in the family tree.

  • Andrew C. Rozefelds, Marcelo R. Pace
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 283-296.

    Austrovideira dettmannae gen. & sp. nov. from the early Oligocene Capella Flora in central Queensland is the first fossil Vitaceae wood described from the Southern Hemisphere. A new combination, Stafylioxylon ramunculiformis (Poole & Wilkinson) Pace & Rozefelds for a Northern Hemisphere fossil wood is also proposed. Austrovideira and Stafylioxylon share with Vitaceoxylon secondary xylem with two diameter classes of vessels, wide vessels usually solitary, narrow vessels forming radial chains, very wide and tall rays, scanty paratracheal parenchyma and septate fibres. Austrovideira differs from Vitaceoxylon in having scalariform intervessel pits and homocellular rays composed exclusively of procumbent cells. This combination of features is seen in the Ampelocissus‐Vitis clade, and a clearly stratified phloem with fibre bands alternating with all other axial elements and phloem rays rapidly dilating towards the periderm is restricted to Parthenocissus and Vitis. Stafylioxylon shares with Austrovideira the presence of scalariform intervessel pits but it differs from that genus in both ray composition and bark anatomy, as it lacks a stratified phloem. These fossil wood genera demonstrate that the lianescent habit in the Vitaceae was established by the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere and by the Oligocene in the Southern Hemisphere. The pollen and seed fossil record shows that the Vitaceae were in Australia by the Eocene and fossil seeds suggest that the family had radiated by this time. The Oligocene Capella flora with two seed taxa and fossil wood (Austrovideira) provides further evidence of an Australian radiation. The fossil evidence, suggests a significant Gondwanic history for the family.

  • Jun Wen, AJ Harris, Yash Kalburgi, Ning Zhang, Yuan Xu, Wei Zheng, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Gabriel Johnson, Elizabeth A. Zimmer
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 297-308.

    Vitis L. (the grape genus) is the economically most important fruit crop, as the source of grapes and wine. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus have been highly controversial. Herein, we employ sequence data from whole plastomes to attempt to enhance Vitis phylogenetic resolution. The results support the New World Vitis subgenus Vitis as monophyletic. Within the clade, V. californica is sister to the remaining New World Vitis subgenus Vitis. Furthermore, within subgenus Vitis, a Eurasian clade is robustly supported and is sister to the New World clade. The clade of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera and V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris is sister to the core Asian clade of Vitis. Several widespread species in North America are found to be non‐monophyletic in the plastome tree, for example, the broadly defined Vitis cinerea and V. aestivalis each needs to be split into several species. The non‐monophyly of some species may also be due to common occurrences of hybridizations in North American Vitis. The classification of North American Vitis by Munson into nine series is discussed based on the phylogenetic results. Analyses of divergence times and lineage diversification support a rapid radiation of Vitis in North America beginning in the Neogene.

  • Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, AJ Harris, Sue Lutz, Jun Wen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 309-330.

    We investigated leaf anatomy and micromorphology in the New World Vitis using light and scanning electron microscopy to understand the correlation of these traits to molecular phylogenetic relationships and environmental affinity. We observed traits known to differ among species of Vitis with importance in traditional taxonomy of Vitis: trichome type, stomata morphology, mesophyll organization, and midrib vascularization. We found that traits associated with water conductance and photosynthesis comprised the highest loadings of axis one of a principal components analysis (PCA) while traits related to gas exchange (i.e., the stomatal apparatus) had high loadings on axis two. Using the PCA, we identified seven clusters of species, which showed little correlation to recently reported molecular phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, analyses using Bayes Traits and Bayesian Binary Method revealed little to no phylogenetic signal in trait evolution. PCA axes one and two separated species occurring in dry southwestern North American habitats from those in mesic places. For example, a cluster of V. monticola and V. arizonica occurred adjacent to a cluster of V. californica and V. girdiana in ordination space, and the latter three species share key leaf anatomical traits. Nevertheless, among these, only V. arizonica and V. girdiana are closely related according to molecular phylogeny. Thus, the leaf micromorphological/anatomical traits of Vitis observed in this study are highly correlated with environment, but not phylogenetic relationships. We expect that trait similarities among distantly related species may result from evolutionary convergences, especially within xeric habitats of western North America.

  • Zhi-Yao Ma, Jun Wen, Jing-Pu Tian, Abbas Jamal, Long-Qing Chen, Xiu-Qun Liu
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 331-339.

    Reticulate evolution is an important driving force of angiosperm evolution. It has been proposed as an important evolutionary process in Vitis L. subgenus Vitis. Events of natural hybridization and introgression of several taxa native to North America have been hypothesized and discussed. However, there is no convincing evidence of reticulate evolution reported for closely related Vitis taxa from East Asia. We aim to explore natural hybridization and introgression among four closely related Vitis taxa from East Asia (V. amurensis Ruprecht, V. romanetii Romanet du Caillaud, V. shenxiensis C. L. Li, and V. piasezkii Maximowicz) with the restriction‐site associated DNA sequencing technique. A total of 46 accessions, covering the potential morphological and geographic variation of each species, are sequenced. Our results show a complex evolutionary pattern of the four Vitis species. The phylogenetic inference suggests that V. amurensis is monophyletic, however, V. romanetii, V. shenxiensis, and V. piasezkii do not appear to be monophyletic. Significant signals of introgression in some accessions have been detected by population structure analyses. D‐statistics analysis and population structure analyses support the presence of introgression between V. shenxiensis/V. piasezkii and V. romanetii in sympatric populations, but a strong signal of admixture has not been recognized between distantly located populations. Our results provide strong evidence of reticulate evolution among V. romanetii, V. shenxiensis, and V. piasezkii.

  • David J. Hearn, Margaret Evans, Ben Wolf, Michael McGinty, Jun Wen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 340-359.

    Multiple processes − including dispersal, morphological innovation, and habitat change − are frequently cited as catalysts for increased diversification. We investigate these processes and the causal linkages among them in the genus Cyphostemma (Vitaceae), a clade comprising ∼200 species that is unique in the Vitaceae for its diversity of growth habits. We reconstruct time‐calibrated evolutionary relationships among 64 species in the genus using five nuclear and chloroplast markers and infer the group's morphological and biogeographic history. We test for changes in speciation rate and evaluate the temporal association and sequencing of events with respect to dispersal, habitat change, and morphological evolution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. In Cyphostemma, neither dispersal nor morphological evolution is associated with shifts in speciation rate, but dispersal is associated with evolutionary shifts in growth form. Evolution of stem succulence, in particular, is associated with adaptation to local, pre‐existing conditions following long‐distance dispersal, not habitat change in situ. We suggest that the pattern of association between dispersal, morphological innovation, and diversification may depend on the particular characters under study. Lineages with evolutionarily labile characters, such as stem succulence, do not necessarily conform to the notion of niche conservatism and instead demonstrate remarkable morphological adaptation to local climate and edaphic conditions following dispersal.

    Multiple processes − including dispersal, morphological innovation, and habitat change − are frequently cited as catalysts for increased diversification. We investigate these processes and the causal linkages among them in the genus Cyphostemma (Vitaceae), a clade comprising ∼200 species that is unique in the Vitaceae for its diversity of growth habits. We reconstruct time‐calibrated evolutionary relationships among 64 species in the genus using five nuclear and chloroplast markers and infer the group's morphological and biogeographic history. We test for changes in speciation rate and evaluate the temporal association and sequencing of events with respect to dispersal, habitat change, and morphological evolution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach.
  • Sadaf Habib, Viet-Cuong Dang, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen, Li-Min Lu
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 360-373.

    Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. (Vitaceae) is a genus with ca. 100 species showing great morphological diversity. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies suggested that traditional classification systems are not consistent with the molecular phylogeny, and Tetrastigma is undergoing further systematic investigation. We traced the evolutionary trends of 20 morphological characters within a robust phylogenetic framework. Our results revealed that many morphological characters show either multiple transitions or few state changes, however, some characters show distinct variation. The two subgenera in Tetrastigma (subgen. Tetrastigma and subgen. Palmicirrata) based on unbranched/bifurcate versus digitately branched tendrils are not supported because subgen. Tetrastigma is paraphyletic. However, the unbranched versus bifurcate/digitately branched tendril is of taxonomic utility to characterize some of the major clades. Inflorescences in Tetrastigma appear axillary, but are leaf‐opposed on a compressed axillary shoot. We found most of the species in Tetrastigma retained the ancestral compound dichasial inflorescence, except those of clade IV that have derived pseudo‐umbellate inflorescences. Other characters including habit, leaf organization, and berry shape provide additional morphological support for the major clades. Our morphological analysis and recent molecular study suggest each of the five major clades within Tetrastigma be treated as distinct taxonomic sections (five sections in the genus).

  • Jun Wen, Limin Lu, Tsai-Wen Hsu, Viet Cuong Dang, Sadaf Habib, John K. Boggan, Hiroshi Okada, Iju Chen, Zhi-Duan Chen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 374-393.

    Recent integrative systematic studies of Vitaceae support the recognition of a new genus Pseudocayratia J.Wen, L.M.Lu & Z.D.Chen. The genus consists of five species from China and Japan. We herein describe the following two new species: Pseudocayratia speciosa J.Wen & L.M.Lu, and P. pengiana Hsu & J.Wen, and make three new combinations: Pseudocayratia dichromocarpa (H.Lév.) J.Wen & Z.D.Chen, P. oligocarpa (H.Lév. & Van.) J.Wen & L.M.Lu, and P. yoshimurae (Makino) J.Wen & V.C.Dang. Phylogenetic analyses based on five chloroplast loci strongly support Pseudocayratia as sister to Tetrastigma. Morphologically, species of the genus have stigmas enlarged (but not 4‐lobed), pedicels at fruiting stage enlarged and fleshy, seeds with a crustaceous thin testa, circular cup‐like ventral infolds, linear chalaza extending ca. 2/3 to 3/4 of the seed length (from apex to base), lateral margin with thin edges, and T‐shaped endosperm in cross‐section. The genus is distributed in eastern Asia (China and Japan). The taxonomic novelties we report in this study at both the generic and species levels highlight the importance of collections‐based research in today's integrative systematics.

  • Short Communication
  • Marcelo R. Pace, Veronica Angyalossy, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Jun Wen
    J Syst Evol. 2018, 56(4): 394-400.

    Successive cambia in Vitaceae have been reported solely for Tetrastigma, a diverse genus of lianas found primarily in tropical Asia, extending into Australia. However, the structure and origin of these successive cambia have never been fully studied. Here we report the presence of this cambial variant in Tetrastigma retinervum and T. voinierianum, and describe its ontogeny in detail in the latter. New cambia appear successively in stems of Tetrastigma differentiating from the innermost parenchyma cells of the primary phloem, which are located interior to the pericyclic fiber strands. This study constitutes the first report of successive cambia being derived from primary phloem parenchyma in woody plants as a whole. Both species are members of Tetrastigma clade VI, the most species‐rich lineage within the genus. The examination of mature stems of additional species of Tetrastigma should determine the distribution of this unique type of cambial variant in the genus and enhance our understanding of the adaptive significance of this unusual character.