J Syst Evol

• Research Articles •    

Genomic landscape of parallel domestication of upland rice and its implications

Mei-Xia Wang1,2, Chun-Yan Jing1,2, Xiu-Hua Wang1,2, Zhe Cai1, Lian Zhou1, Mu-Fan Geng1,2, Jing-Dan Han1, Jie Guo1, Fu-Min Zhang1,2, and Song Ge1,2*   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-04-09 Accepted:2020-05-10 Online:2020-05-14

Abstract:

Parallel domestication has been widely acknowledged but its genetic basis remains largely unclear. As an important rice ecotype, upland rice was assumedly domesticated multiple times in two rice subspecies (Indica and Japonica ) and provides a feasible system to explore the genetic basis of parallel domestication. To uncover the genome‐wide pattern of genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice and explore the parallelism of genetic changes during upland rice domestication, we obtained whole‐genome sequences of 95 rice landraces and yielded genome‐wide expression data for five tissues of representative accessions of upland and lowland rice. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed multiple domestications of the upland ecotype in two rice subspecies. Genomic scans based on resequencing data identified substantial differentiation between the upland and lowland ecotypes with 11.4% and 14.8% of the genome diverged between the two ecotypes in Indica and Japonica , respectively. Further genome‐wide gene expression analyses found that 30% of effectively expressed genes were significantly differentiated between two ecotypes, indicating the importance of regulation changes in the domestication of upland rice. Importantly, we found that only 1.8% of differentiated genomes and 1.6% of differentially expressed genes were shared by upland Indica and upland Japonica , suggestive of largely unparallel genetic alterations during upland rice domestication. These findings not only provide new insights into the genetic basis of parallel domestication at the genome scale but could also facilitate genetic improvement and breeding of rice and crops in general.

Key words: domestication, genomics, parallel evolution, upland rice