J Syst Evol ›› 2023, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (2): 299-314.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12923

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Deep phylogeographic splits and limited mixing by sea surface currents govern genetic population structure in the mangrove genus Lumnitzera (Combretaceae) across the Indonesian Archipelago

Jeprianto Manurung1,2*, Blanca M. Rojas Andrés1†, Christopher D. Barratt2, Jan Schnitzler1,2, Bror F. Jönsson3, Ruliyana Susanti4, Walter Durka2,5‡, and Alexandra N. Muellner‐Riehl1,2‡*   

  1. 1 Department of Molecular Evolution and Plant Systematics & Herbarium(LZ), Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, Johannisallee 21-23, Leipzig D-04103, Germany
    2 German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research(iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstrasse 4, Leipzig D-04103, Germany
    3 Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK
    4 Research Center for Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor km, 46, Bogor, Indonesia
    5 Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, Halle D-06120, Germany
    Current address: Blanca M. Rojas Andrés, Departamento de Botánica y Fisiología Vegetal, University of Salamanca, Salamanca E‐37007, Spain, and Biobanco de ADN Vegetal, University of Salamanca, Edificio Multiusos I+D+i, Calle Espejo s/n, Salamanca 37007, Spain
    Shared last authorship.
    *Authors for correspondence. Jeprianto Manurung. E‐mail: jeprianto_m@apps.ipb.ac.id; Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl. E‐mail: muellnerriehl@uni-leipzig.de
  • Received:2021-12-17 Accepted:2022-10-09 Online:2022-10-17 Published:2023-03-01

Abstract: The Indonesian Archipelago accommodates the largest mangrove area in Southeast Asia and possesses the world's richest composition of mangrove species. The archipelago comprises areas of the biogeographic regions Sunda and Wallacea, separated by Wallace's line. Here, we used the true mangrove species Lumnitzera littorea and Lumnitzera racemosa as a study case for understanding the effects of phylogeographic history, sea surface currents, and geographical distance on genetic diversity and genetic structure. We sampled 14 populations of L. littorea (N = 106) and 21 populations of L. racemosa (N = 152) from Indonesia and used 3122 and 3048 SNP loci, respectively, genotyped using the ddRADseq approach. We assessed genetic diversity, genetic structure, and effective dispersal of the populations and related them to geographical distance and sea surface currents. Our study revealed low levels of genetic variation at the population level in Lumnitzera. Pronounced genetic differentiation between populations indicated two phylogroups in both species. While in L. littorea the two phylogroups were largely separated by Wallace's line, L. racemosa showed a northwest vs. southeast pattern with strong mixture in Wallacea. Our findings provide novel insights into the phylogeography of the mangrove genus Lumnitzera and the role of sea surface currents in the Indonesian Archipelago.

Key words: ddRADseq, genetic diversity, genetic structure, Indonesian Archipelago, isolation by distance, Lumnitzera racemosa, Lumnitzera littorea, sea surface currents