J Syst Evol

• Research Article •    

Revisiting Xylaria diversity in Southern China: Descriptions of 40 new species

Qi-Rui Li1,2,3†, Kamran Habib1,4†, You-Peng Wu1, Si-Han Long1, Xu Zhang1, Hong-Min Hu1, Qian-Zhen Wu1, Li-Li Liu5,6, Yan Lin1, Xiang-Chun Shen2*, and Ji-Chuan Kang3*   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China;
    2 The High Efficacy Application of Natural Medicinal Resources Engineering Center of Guizhou Province(The Key Laboratory of Optimal Utilization of Natural Medicine Resources), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China;
    3 Engineering and Research Center for Southwest Bio-Pharmaceutical Resources of National Education Ministry of China, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China;
    4 Department of Botany, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, KP, Pakistan;
    5 Immune Cells and Antibody Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province/Key Laboratory of Biology and Medical Engineering, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China;
    6 Key Laboratory of Infectious Immune and Antibody Engineering of Guizhou Province, Engineering Research Center of Cellular Immunotherapy of Guizhou Province, School of Biology and Engineering/School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China
    These authors contributed equally as first authors to this work.
    *Authors for correspondence. Xiang-Chun Shen. E-mail:shenxiangchun@126.com;Ji-Chuan Kang. E-mail:jckang@gzu.edu.cn
  • Received:2023-10-19 Accepted:2024-01-14 Online:2024-03-26

Abstract: The genus Xylaria comprises a diverse group of fungi with a global distribution and significant ecological importance, known for being a source of bioactive secondary metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and additional properties. In this study, we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the species of Xylaria found in some parts of southern China, characterized by an extensive multilocus phylogeny analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS), TUB2 (β-tubulin), and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (rpb2) gene regions. Morphological examination and detailed comparative analyses of the collected specimens were conducted to determine the distinctiveness of each species. The multilocus phylogeny approach allowed us to infer evolutionary relationships and assess species boundaries accurately, leading to the identification of 40 novel Xylaria species hitherto unknown to science. The newly described species are: X. baoshanensis, X. bawanglingensis, X. botryoidalis, X. dadugangensis, X. doupengshanensis, X. fanglanii, X. glaucae, X. guizhouensis, X. japonica, X. jinghongensis, X. jinshanensis, X. kuankuoshuiensis, X. liboensis, X. negundinis, X. orbiculati, X. ovata, X. pseudoanisopleura, X. pseudocubensis, X. pseudobambusicola, X. pseudoglobosa, X. pseudohemisphaerica, X. pseudohypoxylon, X. puerensis, X. qianensis, X. qiongzhouensis, X. rhombostroma, X. serratifoliae, X. shishangensis, X. shuqunii, X. shuangjiangensis, X. sinensis, X. tongrenensis, X. umbellata, X. xishuiensis, X. yaorenshanensis, X. yinggelingensis, X. yumingii, X. yunnanensis, X. zangmui, and X. zonghuangii. The study's findings shed light on the distinctiveness of the newly described species, supported by both morphological distinctions and phylogenetic relationships with their close relatives. This taxonomic revision significantly contributes to our understanding the diversity of Xylaria in China and enriches the knowledge of fungal biodiversity worldwide.

Key words: fungal diversity, novel species, taxonomic revision, Xylariaceae