J Syst Evol ›› 2023, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (2): 414-427.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12850

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Characterization of genome-wide long terminal repeat retrotransposons provide insights into trait evolution of four grapevine species

Guang‐Qi He1,2, Hui‐Ying Jin1,2, Yi‐Zhe Cheng1,2, Yi‐He Yu1,2, and Da‐Long Guo1,2*   

  1. 1 College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan, China
    2 Henan Engineering Technology Research Center of Quality Regulation of Horticultural Plants, Luoyang 471023, Henan, China
    *Author for correspondence. E‐mail: guodalong@haust.edu.cn
  • Received:2021-12-23 Accepted:2022-03-17 Online:2022-03-29 Published:2023-03-01

Abstract: Grapevine is one of the most economically important crops in the world. Although long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are thought to have played an important role in plants, its distribution in grapevine is not clear. Here, we identified genome-wide intact LTR retrotransposons in a total of six high-quality grapevine genomes from Vitis vinifera L., Vitis sylvestris C.C. Gmel., Vitis riparia Michx. and Vitis amurensis Rupr. with an average of 2938 per genome. Among them, the Copia superfamily (particularly for Ale) is a major component of the LTR retrotransposon in grapevine. Insertion time and copy number analysis revealed that the expansion of 70% LTR retrotransposons concentrating on approximately 2.5 Ma was able to drive genome size variation. Phylogenetic tree and syntenic analyses showed that most LTR retrotransposons in these genomes formed and evolved after species divergence. Furthermore, the function and expression of genes inserted by LTR retrotransposons in V. vinifera (Pinot noir) and V. riparia were explored. The length and expression of genes related to starch metabolism and quinone synthesis pathway in Pinot noir and environmental adaptation pathway in V. riparia were significantly affected by LTR retrotransposon insertion. The results improve the understanding of LTR retrotransposons in grapevine genomes and provide insights for its potential contribution to grapevine trait evolution.

Key words: evolution, genome-wide, grapevine, LTR retrotransposons, trait