Table of Contents

10 November 1989, Volume 27 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Hao Si-Jun, Hsu Ping-Sheng, Miao Bai-Mao
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 405-420.
    The Zhoushan Archipelago, one of the famous fishing grounds in China, is lo cated in the northern part of the Donghai Sea, at the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay (Fig. 1). The flora of the archipelago was botanically little known. After 1972, several botanical ex plorations to the archipelago were conducted by Qiu L.-Q. of the Shanghai Museum of Natu ral History, and nearly one thousand numbers of plant specimens were collected. From these specimens, we have identified about 500 species of seed plants. The present paper deals with a numerical taxonomic study of the floristic affinities of seed plants of the Zhoushan Archipelago by means of both cluster and principal component analyses (PCA). The total distribution realm of the Zhoushan floristic elements is divided into 18 regions, which were used as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). The 348 native species and infrasp ecific taxa (see Appendix 1, excluding cultivated plants, ruderals and exotics) of seed plants were used as characters of the OTUs, A normal cluster analysis using UPGMA gave rise to phenogram (Fig. 1). The phenogram provides a great amount of information regarding the floristic affinities between Zhoushan and the other regions. In the PCA, method of inverse analysis was used and has brought forth two diagrams of dimensional program (Fig. 2a,b). These diagrams give some hints of the distributional trends of geographical elements and floristic affinities. The result of the above analyses shows that the floristics of the Zhoushan Archipelago is the most closely related to those of its neibouring regions, for instance, Zhejiang mainland, Jiangsu and some other regions of eastern China. Though rich in island elements, the archipelago has almost no endemic species. The short distance between the archipelago and the mainland, which has favored mutual exchange of plants, and the severe destruction of the original forest vegetation, may account for this phenomenon. The floristic similarities between Zhoushan and Taiwan of China and between the archipelago and Japan are not so remarkable. This may be due to both the climatical difference and geographical barriers existing between these floristic regions. Yet the presence of a number of linking plants confined to these floras, such as Rhaphiolepis integerrima, Anodendron salicifolium, and Eurya japonica, etc., suggests that these regions should be considered as being of the common tertiary origin. The mountain forest flora of Zhoushan is more closely related to those of southern regions than to those of northern regions of China, From the point of view of floristic regionalization, it is appropriate to consider the flora of the Zhoushan Archipelago as a part of the northern subregion of the mid-subtropical region.
  • Wang Zhong-Ren
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 421-438.
    Cytological and biosystematic studies on the genus Pteris have made a great contribution to the theory of speciation and evolution in ferns. Sino-Japanese area is one of the speciation centers of this genus. But only a few Chinese species have been known cytologically. As a preliminary study, ten species of the genus Pteris and two species of the related genera Pteridium and Histiopteris were observed. All the materials were collected from southwest and south China. Their young sori were fixed in ethanol and glacial acetic acid (3:1), in the field. The preparations were made with acetocarmine squash method. The vouchers are deposited in PE. The results of observation are summarized in Table 1. Of Pteris, four species are agamosporous, eight are polyploid, six are actually the members of species complexes. Only two species are purely sexual diploids. Pteris cretica L. var. nervosa (Thunb.) Ching et S. H. Wu has 58 autobivalents at meiosis of spore mother cell, and usually produces 32 diplospores per sporangium. It is obviously an agamosporous diploid. Apart from 32-spored sporangium, some 4-, 8-, 16-, 64-, 13-, 34-, 36-spored, completely abortive or partly abortive sporangia were also found in the fixed material of a single individual. For explaining these unusual types of sporangia at least nine sporogenesis routes can be inferred. It may not be impossible that besides mainly producing functional diplospores, P. cretica var. nervosa also gives a few functional giant spores with a doubled or multiplied somatic chromosome number, which means that polyploids may be simply derived from the spores produced by their diploid parent. The spores in a sporangium are usually tetrahedral, but a few bilateral ones are also found in some sporangia. Sometimes, the bilateral spores are even more than the tetrahedral ones in a sporangium. Pteris vittata L. from the type locality shows 58 bivalents at diakinesis of meiosis. Without doubt, it is a sexual tetraploid, which was also found in south Guangdong and south Yunnan. However, Its natural ancestral diploid has been widely found in the subtropical regions of China, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Hubei provinces. A sterile triploid with the chromosome number of n=201Ⅰ+26Ⅱ+5Ⅲ and a sterile tetraploid hybrid with the chromosome number of n=9Ⅰ+45Ⅱ+3Ⅲ+21Ⅴ were found in south Yunnan and south Guangdong respec tively. It is evident that P. vittata L. sensu lato is a species complex which includes several cy totypes. Its hexaploid form was reported from south India by Abraham et al. The distribu tion pattern of different cytotypes in P. vittata complex may indicate that the tropics is more favourable to formation and surviving of polyploid than the subtropics. However, it is most possible that Chinese subtropics is the origin place of the ancestral member in the P. vittata complex. In gross morphology, the tetraploid and triploid forms are only bigger and stronger than the diploid form. But the diploid can also grow rather big in cultivation. They can har dly be distinguished from each other. Therefore, they are not given formal names here. The author fully agree with Prof. T. Reichstein when he said in 1983 that it was hoped that a new nomenclature could be adopted for the cytotypes of species complex in future. The special chromosome number of Pteris deltodon Bak .was counted in this work for the first time. It has 55 bivalents at meiosis of SMC. This number is the only exception in the genus Pteris, and shows that aneuploidy may have taken place in this genus. However, the pos sibility can not be ruled out that P. deltodon is an allotetraploid came from two diploid species respectively with the chromosome number 26 and 29. Pteris gallinopes described by Prof. Ching in i983 is an agamosporous tetraploid with 116 autobivalents at meiosis, different from the related triploid species P. dactylina Hook. and P. henryi Christ. P. ensiformis Burm P. muftifida Poir. and P. semipinnata L. are sexual tetraploids with n=58. P. excelsa Gaud. and P. oshimensis Hieron. var. paraemeiensis Ching are agamosporous triploids with n = 87 autobivalents. P. wallichiana Agardh is a sexual diploid with n=29. The high frequency of polyploids and agamospory among these random sampled Chinese species futher confirms the conclusion that both polyploidy and apomixis have played an important role in speciation and evolution of the genus Pteris. Pteridium aquilimum (L.) Kunh var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex Heller and Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J. Sm. have n=52 and n=96 respectively. They are both sexual tetraploids. Their chromosome numbers show again that the genera Pteridium and Histiopteris are distinquished from the genus Pteris by different basic numbers. This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
  • Fu Cheng-Xin, Hong De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 439-450.
    Eight species in eight genera of Liliaceae from Zhejiang were cytotaxonomically studied in this work. The karyotypes of Chinese materials of these species are mostly reported for the first time. The results are shown as follows (see Table 2-4 for chromosome parameters of them): 1. Disporum sessile D. Don Sixteen chromosomes are counted at metaphase of roottip cells.The Karyotype formula is 2n=16=2lm+2sm+4st+2sm+3sm+ 1sm(SAT)+2st (Plate 1: 2-3, see Fig. 1:1 for its idiogram). The Karyotype belongs to 3B in Stebbins’ (1971) karyotype classification, and consists of four pairs of larger chromosomes (1-4) and four pairs of smaller chromosomes (5-8). One SAT-chromosome is situated at the sixth pair. The chromosomes range between 4.85-16.63μm. The karyotypic constitution is similar to that of Japanese material reported by Noguchi (1974). Chang and Hsu (1974) reported 2n=14=13st+1sm and 2n= 16=2m + 13st + 1sm for the material from Taiwan under the name of D. shimadai Hay. (=D. sessile D. Don). Compared with our result of D. sessile, the differences are obvious. 2. Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce PMCs diakinesis shows eleven bivalents, n = 11, 5 large and 6 small (Plate 2:5). The meiosis is normal. The majority of reports of this species are 2n=20, with a few 2n=22 and 30 (see Table 1). The materials from southen Siberia and the Far East in USSR are all of 2n= 20. Our result is the same as recorded by Jinno (1966) in the Japanese material and by Li (1980) from Beijing. Ge (1987) reported 2n=20 in the cultivated individuals of Shandong, China, showing that both 2n=20 and 22 exist in China. 3. Scilla scilloides (Lindl.) Druce This species has the somatic chromosome number 2n=18 (Plate 1: 4-6, see Fig. 1:2 for its idiogram), of which two groups of chromosomes can be recognized, i.e. the 1 st -5 th pairs of large and the 6 th-9th pairs of small chromosomes. A distinct character of the karyotype is that two satellites are attached to the short arms of the 1st pair of chromosomes. The degree of asymmetry is of 3C. The karyotype formula is 2n = 18 = 2sm (SAT) + 6st + 2t+ 6m + 2sm. The chromosomes range from 2.02 to 11.93 μm. The Previous counts on the species are 2n = 16, 18, 26, 34, 35, 36 and 43 (see Table 1). The present investigation confirms Noda’s and Haga’s results. The species is considered to be of two genomes, namely A(x = 8) and B(x = 9). Our result shows a genome composition of BB, having a pair of large SAT-chromosomes. Chang and Hsu (1974) reported 2n = 34 from a population of Taiwan, an amphidiploid (AABB), Karyotypes of other Chinese populations are worth further researches. 4. Tricyrtis macropoda Miq. The chromosome number of somatic cells is 2n= 26, and PMCs MII shows 13 bivalents (n= 13) (Plate 3:1-3, see Fig. 1:3 for its idiogram). The karyotype formula is 2n= 26= 6m + 10sm + 6st + 4st (or t), which is composed of chromosomes: 4L + 22S in size. The degree of asymmetry is of 3B. No centromeres of the 12th and 13th pairs of chromosomes were observed at metaphase, and the chromosomes may be of st or t. Nakamura (1968) reported 2n= 26(4L+ 22S)= 2sm+ 2sm-st+ 14st-sm+ 8st for T. macropoda Miq. and 2n= 26(4L+ 22S)= 8m+ 2sm+2sm-st+ 2st-sm+ 12st for its ssp. affinis, both from Japan. It is clear that the major character of their karyotypes, i. e. 4L + 22S, is consistent with that reported here. Based on the previous and present reports, all Tricyrtis species studied are remarkably uniform in the basic karyotype, i. e. 4L + 22S. 5. Allium macrostemon Bunge. The present observation on the root-tip cells of the species shows 2n = 32 (Plate 3: 4-5, see Fig. 1:4 for its idiogram). The karyotype formula is 2n (4x)= 32= 26m + 6sm, which belongs to 2B, being of high symmetry. Except the 6th, 10th and 13th pairs of chromosomes all the are metacentric. Chromosomes of this species are large, ranging from 5.94 to 18.06 μm. Our result agrees with Kawano’s (1975) report under the name of A. grayi Regel ( = A. macrostemon, Wang and Tang 1980). 6. Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. Ten bivalents were observed in PMCs MI, n=10 (Plate 1: 1). The present result confirms the number of a population of Taiwan recorded by Hsu (1971). 7. Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl. The species from Mt. Taogui, Hangzhou, is found to have 2n (2x)=36=22m + 14sm (Plate 2: 1,5, see Fig. 1:5 for its idiogram) which belongs to 2B. The karyotype is composed of 2 medium-sized chromosomes with metacentric centromeres and 34 small chromosomes, ranging from 1.34 to 4.92 μm. The populations from Mt. Tianzhu and Mt. Yuling, Zhejiang, are found to be aneuploids at tetraploid level (2n=64-70). It is interesting that Nagamatsu (1971) found the karyotypes of Japanese materials to be 2n= 67 and 68, also showing unsteady 4x karyotypes of this species. In the previous. reports (see Table 1), the chromosome numbers of this species are mainly 2n = 72, besides 2n = 36 recorded by Sato (1942) from Japan. 8. Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang The somatic complement of the species collected from Mt. Tianzhu, Hangzhou, is 2n = 36 (Plate 2: 3-4, see Fig. 1:6 for its idiogram). The karyotype is 2n(2x) = 36 = 16m + 20sm, belonging to 2B type. The chromosomes are small except the medium-sized, 1st pair and the range is from 1.27 to 5.19μm. The material from Mt. Yuling, Zhejiang, is found to have a variety of chromosome numbers (2n= 60-71), as observed in Ophiopogon japonicus. Hasegawa (1968) reported the karyotype of 2n = 72 (4x) from Japan The 2x karyotype is first recorded. This genus is closely related to Ophiopogon. Based on the Hasegawa’s and present studies, all the species in these two genera are remarkably uniform in karyo-type. Therefore, the taxonomy of the two genera is worth further researches.
  • Zhang Ding-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 451-453.
    The present paper describes the karyotype of two populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. from Mt. Huangshan and Mt. Jiuhuashan. The somatic chromosomes of both groups are the same: K(2n)=2x=10=6m+2sm+2st, without sat-chromosomes. The ratio of the largest to the smallest chromosomes is 1.47. The proportion of the chromosomes with the arm ratios more than 2 is 0.2. Therefore, the karyotypes of both populations belong to 2A type of Stebbins. These descriptions prove that chromosome number and karyotype of different populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. are stable. The chromosome number is identical with that reported on the species.
  • Kiu Hua-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 454-456.
    species of Cleistanthus (Euphorbiaceae) are presently known from Guangdong and Hainan: Cleistanthus, dongfangensis is a new combination based on Phyllanthus dongfangensis. Its morphological description is corrected here. C. tonkinensis and C. sumatranus are new records in Guangdong Province. C. tomentosus is found in Baoting and Ya Xian of Hainan Province.
  • Shih Chu
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 457-460.
  • Fang Ding
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 461-462.
    A new species, Amomum jingxiense (Zingiberaceae), is described from Guangxi, China, and Amomum hongtsaoko C. F. Liang et Fang is found conspecific with A. tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie and thus is reduced.
  • Su Song-Wang, Zhang Qing
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 463-465.
    One new section and one new species of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae) are described from Anhui Province, China. i. e. Sect. Cyclostyliferae and Carex shuchengensis S. W. Su et Q. Zhang.
  • Cao Rui, Liu Guo-Hou
    J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 466-469.
    When the genus Yinshania Ma et Y. Z. Zhao was published, it had only a single species, Y. albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao which was indicated as the type of the genus (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1979). Y. Z. Zhao 155. was indicated as the type specimen of Y. albiflora. It is adequate to cite Y. albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao as the type of genus Yinshania Ma et Y. Z. Zhao. In a revision (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25(3): 204-219, 1987) Y. H. Zhang made a combintion, Yinshania acutangula (O. E. Schulz) Y. H. Zhang (=Cochlearia acutangula O. E. Schulz) and reduced Yinshania albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao as a variety of Y. acutangula,i. e. Y. acutangula var. albiflora (Ma et Y. Z. Zhao) Y. H. Zhang. She is uncorrect, however, when she cited Y. acutangula (O. E. Schulz) Y. H . Zhang as the type of the genus Yinshania Ma et Y. Z. Zhao. It should be cited as follows: Yinshania Ma et Y. Z. Zhao Typus generis: Yinshania albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao (=Yinshania acutangula(O. E. Schulz) Y. H. Zhang var. albiflora (Ma et Y. Z. Zhao) Y. H. Zhang)
  • J Syst Evol. 1989, 27(6): 469-482.