J Syst Evol ›› 2020, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (1): 1-17.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12513

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phylogenetic relationships of Cyrtandromoea and Wightia revisited: A new tribe in Phrymaceae and a new family in Lamiales

Bing Liu1,2†, Yun-Hong Tan3,4†, Su Liu5†, Richard G. Olmstead6, Dao-Zhang Min7, Zhi-Duan Chen1,2, Nirmal Joshee8, Brajesh N. Vaidya8, Richard C. K. Chung9, and Bo Li7*   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    2Sino‐African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China
    3Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yezin 05282, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
    4Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla 666303, Yunnan, China
    5Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602, China
    6Department of Biology and Burke Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195‐5325, USA
    7Research Centre of Ecological Sciences, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
    8Agricultural Research Station, Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA 31030, USA
    9Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kepong 52109, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Received:2018-07-27 Accepted:2019-05-14 Online:2019-05-17 Published:2020-01-01

Abstract: The familial placements of Cyrtandromoea Zoll. and Wightia Wall., two small and enigmatic South‐East Asian genera, have long been controversial in Lamiales. Here we adopt a two‐step approach to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. We initially reconstructed a large‐scale phylogeny of Lamiales using six chloroplast markers (atpB, matK, ndhF, psbBTNH, rbcL, and rps4). The results showed that both Cyrtandromoea and Wightia emerged in the LMPO clade, including Lamiaceae, Mazaceae, Phrymaceae, Paulowniaceae, and Orobanchaceae. Based on the second set of six chloroplast markers (atpB, matK, ndhF, rbcL, rps16, and trnL‐F) and two nuclear ribosomal regions (external transcribed spacer and internal transcribed spacer) for the analyses focusing on the LMPO clade, our results revealed that Cyrtandromoea was consistently nested within Phrymaceae, whereas Wightia was supported as sister to Phrymaceae by the chloroplast DNA dataset or sister to Paulowniaceae by the nuclear ribosomal DNA dataset. Morphological and anatomical evidence fully supports the inclusion of Cyrtandromoea in Phrymaceae, and an updated tribal classification is done for Phrymaceae with five tribes, that is, Cyrtandromoeeae Bo Li, Bing Liu, Su Liu & Y. H. Tan, trib. nov., Diplaceae Bo Li, Bing Liu, Su Liu & Y. H. Tan, trib. nov., Leucocarpeae, Mimuleae, and Phrymeae. The conflicting phylogenetic position of Wightia indicated by different genome markers results in difficulty placing the genus in either Phrymaceae or Paulowniaceae. Considering the distinct morphological differences between Wightia and other families in the LMPO clade, we here propose a new family, Wightiaceae Bo Li, Bing Liu, Su Liu & Y. H. Tan, fam. nov., to accommodate it, which is the 26th family recognized in Lamiales.

Key words: classification, Cyrtandromoeeae, Diplaceae, Paulownia, phylogeny, Wightiaceae